DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763677, PubMed-ID: 3426904316.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Periodontal disease is highly prevalent and contributes to the global burden of chronic diseases. Inherent and institutional inequities contribute to the prevalence of periodontal disease by facilitating barriers to accessing dental care and maintaining good oral health. The aim of this paper is to review the inequities experienced in the dental field in relation to periodontal disease. Barriers to dental care are experienced in many countries globally. They include cost, insurance coverage, geography, physician availability, and oral health literacy. These barriers influence the frequency of dental visits, oral hygiene, and risk behaviors of individuals which impact an individual’s oral health status. Most often, postponed or improper dental care leads to worsened dental conditions that are more costly and detrimental to one’s wellbeing. These dental conditions, like periodontitis, fall back on the health care system for treatment through emergency department resource use and comorbidities that can develop or be worsened as a result. To reduce the global burden of chronic disease and the costs of treatments for preventable conditions, and increase oral health, corrective actions are required. Such actions may include the use of teledentistry, greater oral health education, emergency departments staffing dental practitioners, subsidies for rural or remote dental practitioners, and policy changes for universal coverage of basic dental needs.
Schlagwörter: accessibility, barriers to care, health care systems, oral disease, treatment, wellbeing
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763661, PubMed-ID: 3426904216.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: While air polishing with abrasive powders has been proved efficient for sub- and supragingival application, only few studies concerning the quality of supragingival biofilm removal using the low-abrasive erythritol powder (EP) exist. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial was to clinically compare the efficacy of supragingival air polishing using EP in comparison with the rubber cup method, and to juxtapose the corresponding biofilm regrowth rates.
Method and materials: Thirty-two young adults, suspending oral hygiene for 48 hours, were enrolled in the present double-blind short-term investigation. Using a split-mouth design, tooth polishing was conducted by means of either air polishing or rubber cups with prophylaxis paste (control). While 16 participants received air polishing in the second and fourth quadrants (and rubber cup prophylaxis in the first and third ones), the reverse sequence was applied with the remaining 16 subjects. Biofilms were assessed using the modified Quigley-Hein index (QHI), and QHI sum scores achieved both prior to and immediately after the polishing procedure, as well as 24 hours later, were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s HSD to test multiple pairwise comparisons.
Results: Both methods revealed a significant reduction of QHI scores (P < .001). Compared to the rubber cup method, air polishing resulted in significantly lower scores, both after tooth cleaning and after 24 hours (P < .001).
Conclusions: Supragingival biofilm removal by means of air polishing combined with low-abrasive erythritol seems to be more efficacious than the traditional polishing method, and should improve oral health care.
Schlagwörter: air polishing, biofilm, erythritol, low-abrasive powder, oral hygiene, plaque, professional tooth cleaning, rubber cup polishing
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763651, PubMed-ID: 3426904116.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if liposomal bupivacaine 1.3% (LB), Exparel (Pacira Pharmaceuticals), is more effective than bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% (BH), Marcaine (Hospira), in reducing postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients undergoing exploratory lingual nerve microsurgery. The investigators hypothesized that patients who received LB would have a greater reduction in acute postoperative pain, and therefore, a reduction in total opioid use over 72 hours postoperatively.
Method and materials: This was a retrospective study. All patients had undergone outpatient lingual nerve microsurgery at University Hospital in Newark, NJ, by principal investigator (VBZ). The research design consisted of two groups. One group received BH, while the other received LB. Participants were administered a telephone questionnaire after obtaining verbal consent. Subjective pain intensity from 0 to 72 hours postoperatively was evaluated on a numeric rating scale (NRS). Additionally, total opioid consumption was evaluated.
Results: Sample size was composed of 20 patients: 11 patients in the BH group, and 9 patients in the LB group. Less perceived pain was reported by subjects in the LB group, and more significantly, less opioid pill consumption.
Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective analysis addressing the following question: “Does LB use decrease postoperative pain and opioid consumption in exploratory lingual nerve microsurgery?” Results showed that intraoperative use of LB was associated with decreased postoperative pain, and decreased opioid pill consumption, when compared to BH, through its prolonged duration of action. The results from this pilot study support LB use in lingual nerve microsurgery.
Schlagwörter: bupivacaine, lingual nerve injury, liposomal bupivacaine, local anesthesia, opioid, pain management
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763645, PubMed-ID: 3426904016.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The aim of this retrospective case series was to report the performance up to 5 years of an innovative surgical design (the apically incised coronally advanced surgical technique [AICAST]) for the regenerative treatment of one- or two-walled intrabony periodontal lesions.
Method and materials: After completion of standard step I to II periodontal therapy, nine isolated periodontal defects were treated through AICAST. The following clinical outcome measurements were collected before the surgical intervention and at the last available follow-up: probing pocket depth (PPD), recession depth (REC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Periapical radiographs of the treated teeth were also taken at baseline and at the last available follow-up (18 months or 5 years postoperatively).
Results: A mean (± standard deviation) PPD reduction of 6.05 ± 1.76 mm (P < .01), REC reduction of 1.15 ± 1.97 mm (P = .119), and CAL gain of 7.20 ± 2.13 mm (P < .01) were attained when comparing preoperative results with the last follow-up visit. CAL gain of 6 mm or more was reached in eight out of nine treated cases (88.9%), with a residual PPD of 2 to 3 mm in all the cases. Complete radiographic fill of the intrabony component was present in all the defects, while detectable suprabony radiographic filling was identified in two cases.
Conclusion: AICAST represents an innovative surgical design for the treatment of deep intrabony defects and the eventual reduction of the associated gingival recessions. Preliminary results show good performance in terms of clinical attachment gains and maintenance of the marginal tissues.
Schlagwörter: coronally advanced flap, enamel matrix derivatives (EMD), papilla preservation flap, periodontal regeneration, periodontitis
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763637, PubMed-ID: 3426903916.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: COVID-19 led to the adoption of containment measures including the temporary closure of dental clinics. However, dental emergencies have not ceased during this pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze patient profiles and the offered management options to pediatric patients presenting with dental emergencies during a COVID-19 lockdown.
Method and materials: Retrospective analysis was performed of patient records of children seeking emergency dental treatment during a 7-week lockdown period in 2020 in a university pedodontic clinic in Germany, and compared to a similar cohort from 2019. Data on patient, tooth, and session level were collected.
Results: The 2020 cohort consisted of 83 patients, and the 2019 cohort included 46 patients, showing a 45% greater need for emergency treatment in 2020. The most common chief complaint was plaque-induced gingivitis/oral mucosal conditions in 2020 (26.4%), and irreversible pulpitis in 2019 (25.5%). Dental caries (without spontaneous pain) was the second most common chief complaint in both cohorts (20.7% and 23.4%, respectively). Most interventions in 2020 were minimally invasive treatments (eg, Hall Technique, silver diammine fluoride; 20.3%), which were in 2019 not considered at all; followed by pharmacologic treatment (16.9%), which was in 2019 also highly used (35.9%).
Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in emergency pediatric dental visits and shifted treatment options towards less invasive procedures.
Schlagwörter: coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2), dental emergency treatment, minimally invasive treatments, pediatric dentistry
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1763625, PubMed-ID: 3426903816.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: Due to the current global situation of refugees, Europe has experienced increased migration from African, Middle Eastern, and Eastern European countries. The objective of this study was to explore oral health, especially prosthetic status and treatment needs, in adult refugees, and to compare these findings with German cohorts.
Method and materials: This representative, multicenter, cross-sectional survey on oral health and treatment needs among refugees was carried out in 10 registration centers for asylum seekers aged 18 to 75 years across Germany in 2016 to 2017. The clinical examination included past caries experience (DMFT) and both existing and necessary prosthetic measures. These measures were registered according to the National German Health Survey 2016 and compared to the German resident population.
Results: A high untreated caries experience (DT 3.9 ± 4.6) was found among refugees (n = 288, age 37 ± 12), in addition to the expected increase of caries experience with getting older (DMFT 7.4 ± 5.7 to 14.9 ± 7.7). In contrast to the German resident population, extractions were the preferred past caries treatment, resulting in a considerable number of missing teeth (MT 7.6 ± 7.3, FT 3.6 ± 4.3, 45- to 64-year-olds). Existing prosthetic treatments such as partial and full removable dental prostheses were very rare among refugees (2% to 4%). Fixed dental prostheses were mostly required in the mandible of young adults (25%, 18- to 44-year-olds), while elderly refugees required more often removable dental prostheses (45 to 64 years, 39.7% maxilla, 38.4% mandible).
Conclusions: Newly arrived refugees in Germany exhibit higher dental treatment needs in general and prosthetic treatment needs in particular due to former extractions, which were performed as a main caries treatment.
Schlagwörter: dental status, Germany, oral health, prosthetic treatment needs, refugees
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702361, PubMed-ID: 3423591108.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The literature review aimed to compile and summarize the results of research relating to the recordings of condylar displacements obtained with extraoral devices, to guide clinicians to set dental (virtual) articulator parameters. The meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) and transversal condylar inclination (TCI, also known as Bennett angle) values according to horizontal reference planes, movement studied, and patient characteristics: dental status, interocclusal relationship, skeletal pattern, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD).
Data sources: A bibliographic search was conducted in the three following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library and Best Evidence. The review was restricted to trials involving participants meeting the following criteria: (1) adult, (2) no previous surgery in the temporomandibular region, and (3) no serious comorbidity conditions. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all study groups and were compared by applying a one-way ANOVA.
Conclusion: All 20 articles selected corresponded to a total of 933 subjects evaluated. The recording devices and horizontal reference planes had a significant impact on the SCI values. Age, dental status, and the presence of symptoms and signs of TMD in subjects had no influence on SCI values, unlike Angle class II, division 2, the class II sagittal pattern, or the increased vertical skeletal pattern SCI parameters (P < .05). The mean TCI value was 8 degrees and was independent of individual patient characteristics and the extraoral recording device used. For accurate kinematic simulation, the patient’s personal plane of reference must be transferred to the system.
Schlagwörter: Bennett angle, condylar inclination, condylar kinematic, dental articulator, literature review, temporomandibular joint
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702307, PubMed-ID: 3423591008.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: Candida adherence to the denture base is an important cause of denture stomatitis in elderly and handicapped patients where effective patient- and physician-based disinfection methods are required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effectiveness of chemical and physicochemical methods and their combinations against common oral Candida species on denture base acrylic resin.
Method and materials: Patients were divided into six groups according to disinfection methods. For chemical disinfection, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, and glutaraldehyde were used by the patients. Microwave and ozone therapy were applied by physicians for physicochemical disinfection. Fungal load count was performed. This procedure was repeated before applying any disinfection procedures, at 1 week and 1 month after the patient started to use the relevant chemical disinfectant and apply physicochemical methods. A multivariate analysis test was used to determine the change in fungal load over time and whether this change led to a difference among the groups (P < .05).
Results: The most frequently isolated Candida strain was Candida albicans. The change in fungal load over time was significantly different (P < .001). However, the difference between the groups did not show any significant difference in the paired comparison analyses of the chemical disinfection groups (P >.05). No Candida strains were detected in either physicochemical method at any of the control time points.
Conclusions: The study concluded that chemical disinfectants used by patients were effective for but total eradication of Candida adhesion requires the use of additional ozone or microwave therapy.
Schlagwörter: Candida albicans, chemical disinfection, complete dentures, microwave, ozone therapy
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702285, PubMed-ID: 3423590908.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes 2 years after the adjunctive use of an InGaAsP diode and Er,Cr:YSGG laser for nonsurgical treatment of severe periodontitis.
Method and materials: Forty-two patients (45.31 ± 9.78 years old, n = 22 females, n = 23 smokers) with stage III or IV grade B periodontitis were randomly treated either with laser (InGaAsP + Er,Cr:YSGG) adjunctive to subgingival debridement (test group, n = 21) or with subgingival debridement alone (control group, n = 21). Subjects in the test group received a second laser treatment in residual sites 2 months after the initial laser therapy. At baseline, and at 12 and 24 months after therapy, periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was the number of residual deep sites at 12 months (probing depth [PD] ≥ 6 mm).
Results: One and two years after nonsurgical periodontal treatment, both groups yielded statistically significant clinical improvements. The adjunctive use of InGaAsP and Er,Cr:YSGG laser to mechanical debridement resulted in statistically significantly higher clinical (PD, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, number of sites with PD ≥ 5 mm, PD ≥ 6 mm, PD ≥ 7 mm) improvements (P < .05) compared to subgingival debridement alone both at 12 and 24 months after therapy.
Conclusion: In patients with stage III or IV grade B periodontitis, InGaAsP and Er,Cr:YSGG used adjunctively to subgingival debridement may additionally improve the clinical outcomes compared to mechanical debridement alone over a period of 24 months.
Schlagwörter: YSGG, InGaAsP, periodontal laser therapy, periodontal treatment, periodontitis
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702197, PubMed-ID: 3423590808.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To assess the efficacy of aerosolized midazolam, introduced through buccal versus intranasal mucosa in managing uncooperative children undergoing dental treatment.
Method and materials: A crossover randomized controlled clinical trial included 36 children aged 3 to 5 years, rated I or II according to the Frankl scale and ASA I or II. Each child fulfilled the requirement of having a dental condition that needed treatment in two dental settings. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups; either buccal or intranasal aerosolized midazolam was administered at the first visit. The alternate route was implemented with a 1-week washout period in the second visit. Drug acceptance and time until optimum sedation were measured. Crying, sleeping, head resistance, and child overall behavior were assessed using modified Houpt scale.
Results: In total, 34 patients (95 %) were drowsy on optimum sedation. There was a statistically higher acceptance of buccal midazolam (P < .001). Onset of optimum sedation was more rapid for the intranasal group, with a mean of 15.50 ± 4.226 minutes (P < .001), while in the buccal group the mean was 22.97 ± 4.582 minutes. No statistical differences were recorded between the two groups in all behavior rating scales, except for crying where the intranasal group was statistically higher (P = .010). Regarding the overall behavior, there was no significant difference recorded between the two groups (P = .204).
Conclusion: Aerosolized buccal midazolam was more tolerated by the patients. However, intranasal aerosolized midazolam had a more rapid onset of sedation. Both buccal and intranasal administrations of aerosolized midazolam are safe and effective.
Schlagwörter: aerosolized, buccal route, intranasal route, midazolam, sedation
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702163, PubMed-ID: 3423590708.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge to health care worldwide. As a part of the virus containment strategy, health care services were limited to the treatment of essential emergencies. The aim was to evaluate the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on patients’ utilization of dental emergency services, focusing on patients vulnerable to severe courses of COVID-19.
Method and materials: Files of 1,299 patients of the Dental School of the University Hospital Wuerzburg between 3 February and 7 June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The observation period was divided into pre-lockdown (Pre-L), during lockdown (Dur-L), and post-lockdown (Post-L). Patients’ demographics, diagnosis, and medical history including COVID-19 anamnesis were recorded.
Results: The number of dental emergency patients decreased by approximately 50% (Pre-L, n = 576; Dur-L, n = 309). Proportions of risk patients among them did not change. Stationary admissions increased by approximately 4% (Pre-L, 12.3% to Dur-L, 16.2%). The most frequent diagnosis was uncontrollable pain (45.6%), originating in 25.2% of endodontic and periodontal diseases. Abscesses (23.0%), dental trauma (16.5%), facial trauma (9.4%), and uncontrollable bleeding (5.5%) followed consecutively.
Conclusion: Patients with an increased risk for severe courses of COVID-19 infection did not refrain from consulting dental emergency care. Dental emergencies should be treated early to avoid stationary admissions to preserve hospital bed capacities.
Schlagwörter: COVID-19, dental emergency care, dental public health, dentistry, pandemic, SARS-CoV-2
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1702145, PubMed-ID: 3423590608.07.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of macro- and microsurgical procedures in removing the epithelial tissue layer of subepithelial connective grafts (SCTGs) harvested by the parallel incision method.
Method and materials: Sixteen patients were randomized to receive macro-SCTG harvesting (n = 10, control group) or micro-SCTG harvesting (n = 10, test group) by the parallel incision technique. Histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the SCTG evaluated the percentage remnant of epithelium and connective tissue. The presence of remnant portions of the epithelium was identified in eight samples (three in the macro- and five in the microsurgery groups).
Results: Sixteen participants with 20 sites were included and 20 SCTG were collected and analyzed. SCTG harvested by microsurgical approaches displayed more portions of remnant epithelium compared to the conventional removal (50% versus 30%). There were no significant differences in mean remnant epithelial thickness for test (147.3 ± 89.3 μm) and control (209.0 ± 127.5 μm) groups (P = .57). Likewise, nonsignificant differences were identified in terms of the connective tissue thickness (macrosurgery: 1,511.0 ± 1,160.0 μm; microsurgery: 1,472.0 ± 1,063.0 μm) between groups (P = .96).
Conclusion: The samples harvested by microsurgery had greater remaining epithelial portions than those harvested by macrosurgery, and similar connective layer thickness.
Schlagwörter: gingival recession, histology, microsurgery, plastic surgery
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1492247, PubMed-ID: 3407638202.06.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: To compare and evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and postoperative complications of 4% articaine using buccal infiltration and 2% lidocaine using inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular primary molars of children aged 6 to 8 years.
Method and materials: 100 participants were randomly distributed to receive either 4% articaine using infiltration anesthesia or 2% lidocaine using inferior alveolar nerve block on each side of the mandibular arch, in two different appointments, after a 1-week interval. The pain perception was evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) and Wong-Baker Faces pain rating scale (WBFPRS). In both the appointments, the efficacy and onset of anesthesia were evaluated using an electric pulp tester. Hemodynamic parameters, which included pulse rate and oxygen saturation levels, were evaluated using a pulse oximeter. Postoperative complications were evaluated at 24-hour follow-up.
Results: Pain score recorded with block was more painful compared to infiltration (P < .05). Anesthetic success was observed with both the local anesthetic agents, with no significant differences (P > .05). Shorter onset of action was observed with articaine (P < .05). Statistically significant differences between groups were noted with regard to heart rate (P < .05). Oxygen saturation levels did not show significant differences (P > .05). When postoperative complications were evaluated with either 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine, very few adverse effects were recorded (P > .05).
Conclusion: Buccal infiltration using 4% articaine has the potential to replace 2% lidocaine using inferior alveolar nerve block in children.
Schlagwörter: articaine, buccal infiltration, inferior alveolar nerve block, lidocaine, pain
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1492237, PubMed-ID: 3407638102.06.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: Healing of postextraction alveolus is a complex process that involves soft and hard tissue regeneration. Pain, swelling, difficulty in opening the mouth, delayed bone tissue healing, alveolitis, and horizontal or vertical resorption of bone tissue are the main problems that impact on consequent treatment. Blood concentrates PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) and PRF (platelet-rich fibrin), which are rich in growth factors, create better conditions for postextraction alveolus healing, enhance quality of soft tissues and bone regeneration, and decrease pain. The study objective was to compare physiologic healing of the postextraction zone with PRF- and PRGF-induced changes.
Method and materials: In total, 43 patients were randomly divided into three groups: control group (mandibular molar extraction and filling of postextraction alveolus with hemostatic sponge containing gentamicin), group 2 (postextraction alveolus filled with PRGF), and group 3 (postextraction alveolus filled with PRF). Bone regeneration was evaluated in CBCT scans after 1 month. Pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS).
Results: After evaluating VAS results 1 day after surgery the lowest pain score was in the PRGF group. Tooth alveolus vertical and diagonal dimensions in the control group were significantly (P = .017) smaller than in the PRGF group. The vertical dimension of the alveolar ridge did not change significantly (P = .859) in the PRGF group; however, it was significantly reduced (P = .04) in the PRF group. One month after surgery the age of the control group was inversely proportionally correlated with the height and diagonal dimension of callus.
Conclusion: Both blood concentrates had great anti-inflammatory properties, but PRGF had better osteoblastic properties and resulted in lower postoperative pain.
Schlagwörter: alveolar process, bone regeneration, plasma-rich in growth factors, platelet-rich fibrin, postoperative pain, tooth socket
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1492199, PubMed-ID: 3407637902.06.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata L for the control of anxiety during third mandibular molar extraction and compare it to midazolam, the most used benzodiazepine in dentistry.
Method and materials: The investigators implemented a prospective, randomized, double-blind, split-mouth study. The degree of anxiety of the patients was assessed before the surgical procedure. The surgeries took place in two sessions: one on each side of the hemi-mandible and, on each of them, the patient received one of the drugs, crosswise. Anxiety control was measured through physical parameters, at the following periods during the surgery: (1) immediately administration of anxiolytic medication, (2) 30 minutes after anxiolytic medication, (3) after extraoral antisepsis, (4) after local anesthesia, (5) during incision, (6) during osteotomy, (7) between osteotomy and odontosection, (8) during odontosection, (9) during surgical store curettage, (10) during suture, and (11) immediately after postoperative care guidelines. Lastly, the volunteers received a self-assessment form in order to report their experience. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon test.
Results: The final sample was composed of 20 patients, with a mean age of 22.5 years. The results of the physical parameters showed statistically significant differences (P < .05) for certain times and physical parameters, especially heart rate (P = .036), which showed the highest control for Passiflora at time point (3). The undesirable effects reported by patients such as drowsiness, muscle relaxation, and dizziness were greater with benzodiazepine.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Passiflora may be considered as an alternative to midazolam in controlling anxiety in dentistry. Future studies will focus on other benzodiazepines and herbal medicines.
Schlagwörter: anxiety, midazolam, oral surgery, phytotherapy, third molar
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1492001, PubMed-ID: 3407637402.06.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics due to the antimicrobial properties against bacteria, the powerful oxidative activity, and the ability to dissolve organic soft tissues. When NaOCl extrudes the apex of the root, commonly referred as “sodium hypochlorite accident,” it can lead to devastating outcomes leading to long-term functional and esthetic deficits. Currently, no clear guidelines exist as to how these patients should be managed. The purpose of this paper is to present a case report and a review of literature and to propose an adequate surgical treatment protocol for this unfortunate event.
Schlagwörter: endodontics, irrigation, pharmacology, surgical procedure, toxicity
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098297, PubMed-ID: 3374921922.03.2021, Sprache: Englisch
Objectives: To examine whether a surgeons’ position affects the axial angulation of dental implants placed freehand.
Method and materials: Implants’ axial angulation was assessed on digital panoramic radiographs. An occlusal line was plotted based on the neighboring teeth/crowns. The mesial angle between the long axis of the implant and the occlusal line was measured. In addition, post-hoc ideal implant-positioning planning was done on the panoramic digital image, and the angle of the intersection between the long axis of the actual and post-hoc ideal implant was measured. Student t test for unpaired observations and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric tests were utilized to compare the ipsi- and contralateral sides and between clinicians.
Results: Seventy-seven patients (149 implants) were eligible for the study. Implants had slight mesial inclination (mean 97.7 ± 8.7 degrees) which was similar for both the ipsi- (98.2 ± 8.4 degrees) and contralateral sides (97.2 ± 9.1 degrees), P = .491. For the post-hoc planning versus actual placement comparison, the overall median (interquartile range) of implant angular deviation was minimal (−0.25 degrees [−2.98, +3.47]). This was true for both the ipsilateral (−0.5 degrees [−2.9, +2.9]) and contralateral (−0.2 [−4.2, +5.4]) sides, P = .55. For the actual versus post-hoc planning, most observations clustered around the midline (zero to minimal deviation), while for the implant to occlusal plane angle, a tendency towards slight mesial angulation was observed.
Conclusions: Dental implants placed freehand by experienced clinicians have only slight axial deviation as measured from post-hoc optimal position. Implants placed in ipsilateral and contralateral sides and by left- and right-dominant-hand clinicians had similar angulations.
Schlagwörter: dental implants, freehand, handedness, implant angulation, positioning accuracy