Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2572911, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049247Pages 1-10, Language: English
Purpose: To determine if an interactive electric toothbrush and smartphone application (app) can reduce self-reported gingival bleeding and promote better brushing behaviour based on global, in-market usage data.
Materials and Methods: Anonymised data were collected worldwide between July 2020 and January 2021 from users of interactive oscillating-rotating electric toothbrushes and app (Oral-B Genius, GeniusX and iO). Self-reported gingival bleeding and brushing behaviour data captured via the app were sent to Google Firebase and Google BigQuery to aid processing and analysis.
Results: Data from 16.7 million brushing sessions were analysed. 439,481 new users responded at least once to the app question: ‘Do you have gum bleeding?’ Of users answering the question over their first two weeks of app use (153,201), the proportion reporting bleeding decreased statistically significantly from week 1 to 2 (28.8% to 17.1%, p < 0.0001). Of users answering the question over each of the first five weeks (43,060) a further statistically significant decrease in those reporting bleeding was seen in each consecutive week, with the week-5 rate being 12.7% (p < 0.0001 vs any previous week). Decreases in duration of excessive pressure (i.e. > 2.5 N – 3.0 N depending on the handle) decreased the proportion of self-reported gingival bleeding (p < 0.0001). Users brushed longer and with less overpressure (p < 0.0001) with vs without live feedback from the app, and showed 94.4% average coverage with live feedback.
Conclusion: The interactive oscillating-rotating electric toothbrushes and app, particularly with live feedback, promote good brushing behaviour. Self-reported gingival bleeding occurred less frequently the longer the system was used.
Keywords: compliance, gum bleeding, in-market evaluation, interactive electric toothbrush
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2395059, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049248Pages 11-17, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide as an adjunct to ultrasonication (US) in biofilm removal and whether it can limit the spread of viable microorganisms in the aerosol.
Materials and Methods: Multi-species biofilms were formed on dentin disks and titanium disks fixed on a plastic surface. After placing the specimens in a periodontal pocket model, an ultrasonic scaler was applied for 30 s, in part combined with 0.25% or 0.5% H2O2. After treatment, the remaining biofilm was analysed for bacterial counts (colony forming units [CFU]), biofilm quantity and metabolic activity. Further, the cytotoxic effect of hydrogen peroxide on periodontal ligament fibroblasts was assessed and the spread of bacteria in aerosol was quantified.
Results: Ultrasonication reduced bacterial counts in biofilm, biofilm mass and metabolic activity on both dentin and titanium disks. Adjunctive use of 0.25% and 0.5% H2O2 more effectively reduced the viable bacteria in biofilm than ultrasonication alone; this was also found on both dentin and titanium. The different concentrations of H2O2 did not lead to corresponding differences in bacterial mass and metabolic activity. The spread of bacteria through aerosols was statistically significantly reduced when adjunctive H2O2 was used. However, a certain cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts by H2O2 could not be ruled out.
Conclusions: Irrigating with H2O2 during periodontal instrumentation with an ultrasonic scaler increases the reduction of viable bacteria within biofilms. It might limit bacterial spreading via aerosols.
Keywords: aerosol, biofilm, hydrogen peroxide, periodontal therapy
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2572979, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049249Pages 19-26, Language: English
Purpose: To compare the analgesic efficacy of orally administered Curcuma longa (curcumin) and mefenamic acid (MA) after surgical periodontal therapy (SPT).
Materials and Methods: Seventy-six periodontitis patients were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, patients received curcumin capsules (200 mg), and in the control group, patients received MA (500 mg). All patients underwent post-operative antibiotic therapy using 500 mg amoxicillin and 400 mg metronidazole for 7 days. Post-operative pain and discomfort were evaluated using the numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS), respectively. Evaluation were performed after 24 (T1), 48 (T2), and 72 h (T3). Group comparisons were done using Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of statistical significance was established at p < 0.05.
Results: All patients had stage 3/grade C periodontitis. The mean age of individuals in the test and control groups were 58.4 ± 7.3 and 57.2 ± 5.2 years, respectively. A family history of periodontal diseases was reported by 37.5% and 47.4% individuals in the test and control groups, respectively. In the test and control groups, the total mean duration of periodontal surgery was 168.2 ± 12.2 and 173.4 ± 10.7 min, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean NRS and VRS scores among patients in the test and control groups. In both groups, there was no statistically significant difference in the change in NRS scores at any time point.
Conclusions: Compared with MA, curcumin is ineffective for pain and discomfort management after SPT. The possibility of the results being biased due to lack of operator blinding cannot be overlooked.
Keywords: curcumin, mefenamic acid, pain, periodontal flap surgery
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2572997, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049250Pages 27-32, Language: English
Purpose: To reach a consensus on a consistent strategy to adopt when screening patients for the clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity.
Materials and Methods: A panel consisting of members of the Advanced Technology in Oral Hygiene Sciences Academy (ATASIO) was formed to start a review process on dentin hypersensitivity (DH) and subsequently elaborate a decision tree to manage DH, from diagnosis to prognosis. The panel employed the RAND in their deliberations. After an initial systematic literature review, it became evident that a consensually validated protocol for the management of patients affected by dentin hypersensitivity has to be considered mandatory by all dental professionals. However, the outcome of the systematic review made it evident that the treatment options to be provided, as well as their prognosis and timing, had never been defined. The panel produced documents that addressed the topic and were subsequently used to generate a questionnaire. A workshop of expert dental professionals was organised to reach consensus on the main steps of the decision tree. Each member completed the questionnaire independently, and then a panel discussion was held to reach a consensus.
Results: A high level of agreement was reached regarding all the items on the questionnaire, and each of the clinical questions formulated was answered. A clinical decision threshold was created.
Conclusions: The dissemination of the information to a wide dental audience should commence upon publication of this consensus document. The authors hope that this consensus will become a model for the development of a dedicated protocol to manage DH.
Keywords: consensus, dentin hypersensitivity, diagnosis, Italy, prognosis
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2573007, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049251Pages 33-40, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the knowledge and practices of Swiss women regarding oral health during pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were attributed to 385 women from 4 public hospitals in the French speaking part of Switzerland from February 2015 to June 2016.The questionnaire consisted of 32 questions including demographic characteristics, oral health habits and awareness of oral changes during pregnancy.
Results: The majority of women (64%) were in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and had a university education (41%). Oral health was considered very important for half of the women (52%) and moderately important for 38% of them. 71% of the women did not notice any change concerning their oral health conditions. Of the remaining 29%, gingival bleeding was the main symptom reported, followed by gingival redness and oedema. Pain and sensitivity were also reported by a few participants. Most of the pregnant women attended dental appointments during their pregnancy, but not on a regular basis, mainly because of lack of time. Almost half of the population had an adequate oral hygiene routine and adapted their eating habits to a much healthier pattern during pregnancy. A large proportion of the participants (71%) was aware that pregnancy renders teeth and gums more vulnerable and that oral health is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, this information was rarely imparted to them by health professionals.
Conclusion: Although pregnant women in the French speaking part of Switzerland seem to be moderately informed about the importance of oral health during pregnancy, health-care professionals do not seem to participate actively. Health professionals need to more actively inform pregnant patients about the importance of preventive oral health measures and oral health care during pregnancy.
Keywords: education, oral health, pregnancy, self-care
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2585655, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049254Pages 41-50, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate inflammatory responses in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) in comparison to periodontal tissue.
Materials and Methods: Nineteen participants with healthy implants restored with titanium or gold-casting abutment were included. PICF and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected for inflammatory cytokine detection by ELISA. Cytokine levels in PICF or GCF of the same individual were compared using the paired t-test, and those from titanium or gold-casting (UCLA) abutment were compared using the independent t-test. Human gingival fibroblast responses to PICF and GCF were then evaluated with one-way ANOVA.
Results: The results demonstrated that IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and IFNγ expressed in PICF are similar to GCF in the same individual. However, IL-1β (p = 0.032) and IL-1α (p = 0.030) was statistically significantly higher in PICF than in GCF. IL-8 level was statistically significantly higher with gold-casting than with titanium abutments (p = 0.003). PICF statistically significantly stimulated higher expression of RANKL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), while focal adhesion kinase (FAK) suppressed mRNA.
Conclusion: The inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α and IL-1β, are higher in healthy peri-implant tissues. Abutment materials may also influence the level of inflammatory cytokines in PICF. Inflammatory mediators in crevicular fluid may affect HGF inflammatory responses and peri-implant tissue integration.
Keywords: cytokines, fibroblast, gold alloy, inflammatory response, peri-implant fluid, titanium
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2573053, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049252Pages 51-60, Language: English
Purpose: To determine acid-formation potential of saliva and evaluate whether this method corresponds with microbiome composition of individuals with and without caries.
Materials and Methods: A clinical, controlled pilot study was performed with two groups: individuals without caries (n = 25; DMFT = 0) and individuals with at least one active carious lesion (n = 25; DMFT>0). A detailed intraoral examination was performed, and the gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. The acid-formation potential was measured (ΔpH) after 1 h. Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LB) were also quantified. Intergroup comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The diagnostic value was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) method and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. The saliva microbiome was analysed by 16S rDNA next-generation sequencing.
Results: A statistically significant difference was found in ΔpH, with the ‘caries’ group showing a higher mean value after 1 h (‘healthy’ = 1.1,’caries’ = 1.4; p = 0.035). The AUC values were moderate to good (ΔpH = 0.67; SM = 0.83; LB = 0.83;1 = ideal). Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli were more frequently detected in the ‘caries’ group (p < 0.001), as were statistically significantly higher GBI (p = 0.006) and PI (p = 0.001). The saliva microbiome had a higher α-diversity and greater richness in individuals with active caries. The incidence of the genera Alloprevotella, Prevotella, Campylobacter and Veillonella was statistically significantly higher in the ‘healthy’ group. The incidence of the genera Fretibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leptotrichia, as well as the phyla Spirochaetes and Synergistetes, was statistically significantly higher in the ‘caries’ group.
Conclusion: Further studies must be carried out to determine the extent to which both tests are suitable for predicting future caries development.
Keywords: acid formation, bacterial tests, caries, oral microbiome, saliva
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2580291, PubMed ID (PMID): 35049253Pages 61-68, Language: English
Purpose: A number of disinfectants and sanitisers are used in dentistry, and there are numerous commercial solutions available. Nonetheless, because each cleaning solution has its own set of indications and limits, there is no one-size-fits-all approach for processing all types of dental equipment. Functional water, such as electrolysed hypochlorite microbubbled water, efficiently eliminates and sterilises biofilms. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether ozonated water could be used to sterilise and disinfect dental-unit water pipelines (DUWP) that had been contaminated with micro-organisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacilli and cocci.
Materials and Methods: Three different groups were formed: group A – ozonated water (Cantoosh); group B – 1% povidine iodine; and group C: conventional distilled water. Group A was the test group, group B the control group, and group C was the positive control group. The water sterilising system was replaced with the appropriate sterilising agent as per the allocated group classification, with 2 min of purging, so that the complete DUWP was filled with the water sterilising system. Samples were collected and analysed, along with a 2-min purge after 24 h, 7 days and 21 days, at the 3 outlet (OL) points: the 3-way syringe at the dental tray(OL1), the cup filler (OL2), and the 3-way syringe of the assistant zone (OL3). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for statistical significance between colony-forming units of control and experimental groups (p < 0.05).
Results: The cup filler yielded higher counts than did the 3-way syringe at the dental tray (OL1) (6.40 and 8.05 on the log scale, respectively). A statistically significant difference in the CFUs was also observed between samples taken after 24 h vs 21 days between groups A, B and C.
Conclusion: The findings showed that exposing DUWP tube systems to ozonated water for an extended length of time drastically lowered the number of microorganisms adhering to their surfaces.
Keywords: biofilms, dental-unit water pipelines, disinfection, microbial contamination, ozonated water