Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b875369, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491372Pages 1-6, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the association of various factors including education level and oral health with type 2 diabetics’ awareness of periodontitis and periodontitis/diabetes relationship, and to evaluate the importance of integrated healthcare in this association.
Materials and Methods: 288 type 2 diabetics were evaluated through a validated structured questionnaire about oral hygiene habits, access and attendance to dental treatment, the presence of periodontitis and previously received information of periodontitis and periodontitis/diabetes relationship. Descriptive data were explored and both simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed.
Results: The average age of participants was 62.24 (±10.93) years, 81.6% were previously treated for periodontitis and approximately 70% have never received information on periodontitis and its relationship with diabetes. A higher chance of participants having previously received information regarding periodontitis was associated with more than 8 years of schooling, daily flossing habit, presence of periodontitis and prior treatment for periodontitis (p
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, periodontal diseases, health promotion, public health/community dentistry, primary healthcare
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b875523, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491373Pages 7-14, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of the present research was to analyse the effects of two bleaching agents, on the enamel crystallography by means of X-ray diffraction.
Material and Methods: Twelve human sound posterior teeth, were collected for the present study (n = 12) and from each tooth two enamel slabs were obtained and randomly assigned to one of two different bleaching protocols. The first protocol involved an in-office bleaching agent (hydrogen peroxide 37.5%/ SDI Polaoffice+), and the second an at-home whitening product (carbamide peroxide 16%/ PHILIPS Zoom! NiteWhite). X-ray diffraction readings were made before and after applying the treatments in order to analyse the peak intensity and crystal domain size. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out to identify the composition correctly. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05).
Results: Peak intensity in spectra obtained by X-ray diffraction had a tendency to diminish, mostly in the at-home bleaching group. The analysed data approximate a decrease in the crystal domain size among the samples treated for longer periods of time. Statistical analysis depicted no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups (p ≥ 0.05).
Conclusions: Crystal domain size had a tendency to decrease, mostly when the enamel was treated by bleaching gels that had to be applied by prolonged periods of time.
Keywords: bleaching agent, enamel crystallography, X-ray diffraction
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b875525, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491374Pages 15-24, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the subgingival microbiological profiles of patients with periodontitis, to determine their stage and grade scores and to evaluate the differences in the microbiota among different stages and grades.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven (n = 67) periodontitis patients were selected. Periodontitis staging and grading, following the 2018 classification system, were defined. Following a clinical examination, subgingival samples were taken from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant for cultivation, identification and quantification. The prevalence, proportion and counts of nine selected periodontal pathogens were determined, and differences between periodontitis stages III and IV and grades B and C were assessed.
Results: All nine cultivable periodontal bacteria were detected, of which the most prevalent was P. intermedia (91.0%) and the least prevalent were E. corrodens (9.0%) and C. ochracea (9.0%). The frequency of detection of the two main target pathogens, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, was 41.8% and 76.1%, respectively. The prevalence (grade B: 80.6%, grade C: 55.6%, p = 0.035) and total counts (grade B: 19.8 colony forming units – CFU/ml-4 (1.9–52.8); grade C: 4.0 CFU/ml-4 (0.0–26.4); p = 0.022) of F. nucleatum were statistically significantly higher in grade B than in grade C periodontitis patients, whereas the counts of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were similar between grades and stages.
Conclusion: Our study suggests that relevant differences between the various grades of periodontitis exist only in the numbers of F. nucleatum. Prevalence and quantities of other cultivable species between different stages and grades of periodontitis seem to be similar.
Keywords: periodontitis, stage, grade, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b875517, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491375Pages 25-31, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify how the prevalence of viridans-streptococci is changed by two appointments of professional prophylaxis and after the subgingival instrumentation via scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and Methods: Samples of the subgingival biofilm were collected from 19 individuals with periodontitis receiving two appointments of professional prophylaxis and SRP before and after the treatment procedures and the presence of viridans-streptococci was analysed by microbiological cultivation. Non-parametric statistical testing using Friedman/Wilcoxon tests and chi-square testing was used for statistical analysis.
Results: No statistically significant changes over time were found for the mutans-group. The prevalence of Streptococcus mitis decreased after two appointments of professional prophylaxis (p = 0.013). The prevalence of S. mitis decreased again after SRP (p <0.001). The prevalence of Streptococcus anginosus decreased after two appointments of professional prophylaxis (p = 0.002). After SRP five positive results for S. anginosus were detected (p = 0.026). For Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus gordonii tendencies to statistical significance were found. The number of positive results for S. oralis increased after the first appointment of professional oral prophylaxis (p = 0.055). The number of positive results for S. gordonii increased after the first appointment of professional oral prophylaxis (p = 0.055).
Conclusion: The step-wise periodontal therapy influences the prevalence of viridans-streptococci, especially S. mitis and S. anginosus. No tremendous increase of streptococci especially related to the carious process occurs in the subgingival biofilm. Clinical Relevance: The study reveals knowledge on changes of the composition of the subgingival biofilm due to different steps of periodontal therapy.
Keywords: periodontitis, professional dental prophylaxis, subgingival instrumentation, subgingival biofilm, viridans-streptococci
Open Access Online OnlyOral Health / PeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b875513, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491376Pages 33-42, Language: English
Purpose: Several studies demonstrated compromised oral health and periodontal diseases as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, consideration of oral health by pregnant women remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and behaviour of French pregnant women towards relationship between oral conditions and pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate influencing factors.
Materials and Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was given to women between 1 and 3 days after delivery in three specialised clinics in France. The questionnaire aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics, self-perceived oral health, type of pregnancy follow-up and knowledge regarding oral conditions during pregnancy and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate correlation between knowledge and behaviour.
Results: The questionnaire was completed by 212 women. Among them, 92% considered prevention of oral diseases during pregnancy important. Despite knowledge of potential negative influence of periodontal diseases on pregnancy outcomes, only 47% of pregnant women received dental diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy. Only 18% of the women discussed oral health consideration during pregnancy with health professional in charge of pregnancy follow-up. Interestingly, absence of dental consultation during pregnancy was associated with low rate of dental consultation prior to pregnancy (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Pregnant women were aware of the association between oral health and pregnancy and of need of prevention. However, consideration of importance of oral health was not adequate to the rate of dental consultation and seems to be influenced by individual dental follow-up habits prior to pregnancy. Clinical Relevance: Dental evaluation should be considered systematically during pregnancy follow-up.
Keywords: oral health, questionnaire, prevention, risk factor
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b898947, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491377Pages 43-50, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the effect of age on the mean percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) in patients enrolled in SPT for at least 5 years.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a retrospective analysis of data collected from SPT patients initially diagnosed with gingivitis or mild to severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were selected: in group A, younger adults (age ≤ 35 years) were included while group B consisted of older SPT patients (age ≥ 65 years). BOP in the two groups was compared according to both disease severity and % compliance with SPT visits.
Results: BOP in all patients (n = 236) was 19.2% (± 12.4). Group A (n = 110) presented mean BOP levels of 19.7% (± 11.8), while lower BOP levels of 18.7% (± 13.0) were found in group B (n = 126; p = 0.5272). Older patients demonstrating high % compliance had lower mean BOP levels (14.2% ± 9.5) than younger patients (18.0% ± 11.7; p = 0.0841). Similarly, BOP was lower in older patients with moderate (group B: 18.4% ± 12.1, group A: 19.3% ± 14.6, p = 0.0541) or severe periodontitis (group B: 22.4% ± 11.4, group A: 23.2% ± 14.0; p = 0.3440). In patients with moderate or severe periodontitis and higher % compliance with SPT, the mean BOP was statistically significantly lower in older patients than in younger patients (moderate: 14.4% ± 11.9 vs 19.4% ± 15.1, p
Keywords: bleeding on probing, elderly, compliance, supportive periodontal therapy
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b898955, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491378Pages 51-57, Language: English
Purpose: A previous clinical study showed that the prevalence of erosive toothwear in vegetarians is statistically significantly higher than in nonvegetarians, due to the consumption of vinegar and other acidic foodstuffs. To adequately inform patients, this study investigated the erosive potential of bottled salad dressings available in Switzerland and compared it with that of orange juice.
Materials and Methods: One hundred enamel samples of bovine teeth were divided into ten groups. Samples were placed in 1 of 9 bottled salad dressings or orange juice (Granini) for 2 min. Afterwards, they were rinsed with Zürich tap water for 30 s, followed by abrasion with a toothbrush for 20 brush strokes and a toothpaste-saliva mixture. Erosive/abrasive enamel wear was determined with contact profilometry after 40 cycles.
Results: The enamel wear (median/IQR) caused by Tradition Sauce Balsamique (9.5 µm/5.3 µm), M-Classic Dressing Italiano (10.9 µm/12.3 µm), Betty Bossi Balsamico Dressing (9.4 µm/4.5 µm) and Thomy Balsamico Vinaigrette Dressing (14.2 µm/6.5 µm) was statistically significantly higher than that caused by orange juice (2.4 µm/0.8 µm). Enamel wear caused by M-Classic Dressing French Joghurt (0.2 µm/0.2 µm) and Coop Qualité & Prix French Dressing (1.2 µm/1.0 µm) was statistically significantly lower compared to that of orange juice.
Conclusions: The pure balsamico vinegar-based dressings (Italian type) showed a statistically significantly higher erosive potential than orange juice, whereas dressings containing calcium-rich products (enriched with milk and/or cream) (French-type) caused lower enamel wear than orange juice. The study shows that some bottled dressings have erosive potential even higher than orange juice and patients should be informed accordingly.
Keywords: erosion, tooth wear, salad dressings
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b898957, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491379Pages 59-65, Language: English
Purpose: The topical fluoride treatment of teeth can lead to a formation of CaF2-like material, which is considered to play a significant role in caries prevention. Different types of fluoride sources are applied. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro fluoridation effect of the lesser known organic fluoride compound nicomethanol hydrofluoride (NH) regarding fluoride accumulation and morphological changes on dental enamel surfaces.
Materials and Methods: The fluoridation effect was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) after treatment with fluoride solutions at a concentration of 1350 ppm F - and a pH value of 5.5. NH was tested against inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF) as reference. Fluoridation was done on pellicle-free and pellicle-covered enamel.
Results: Formation of globular CaF2-like material was observed for both fluoride types. However, NH led to considerably higher calcium fluoride accumulation on the enamel surface as shown by both EDX and SEM. The globule diameters varied between 0.2 and 0.8 µm. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that the globular precipitates lay directly on the enamel surface; only the very surface-near volume was affected. No statistically significant difference of the fluoridation effect was measured with vs without saliva pre-treatment.
Conclusion: The experiments showed a 6 times greater F - surface uptake on dental enamel with NH compared to sodium fluoride, thus suggesting an important role of NH during remineralization phases, fostering equilibrium between de- and remineralization.
Keywords: amine fluorides, calcium fluoride precipitation, enamel, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b898961, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491380Pages 67-76, Language: English
Purpose: Orthodontic treatment may introduce a risk to the integrity of enamel due to plaque accumulation and colonisation by oral microbes. This prospective cohort study observed the effect of fixed, self-ligating orthodontic appliances on saliva properties and oral microbial flora.
Materials and Methods: Thirty adolescent patients were recruited (13 female, 17 male, mean age 13.97 ± 2.07 years). Saliva samples were collected before placement of fixed orthodontic appliances (T0), and 4 (T1) and 12 (T2) weeks later. Salivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were recorded. All saliva samples were cultured on agar plates for 2 days. Salivary prevalence of Neisseria spp., streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida albicans were assessed.
Results: High buffering capacity was reported in 21 patients at T0, 22 patients at T1 and in 28 patients at T2. Saliva flow rate also increased over time (7.08 ml/5 min at T0, 7.93 ml/5 min at T1 and 8.35 ml/5min at T2). Mean pH was 7.63 at T0, 7.67 at T1 and 7.78 at T2. There was no evidence that either pH or the number of colonies of any of the microbial species changed over time.
Conclusion: The increased buffering capacity of saliva as well as the salivary flow rate after initial bonding might be protective against the development of dental caries. Current microbial findings indicate that initiation of orthodontic treatment may not be associated with significant changes in oral microbial flora.
Keywords: microbial flora, orthodontics, saliva
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b898969, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491381Pages 77-83, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the literature and chart the clinical studies that have focused on periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes since 1996.
Materials and Methods: Medline, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched for original studies focused on pregnancy outcomes and periodontal status in humans. The most recent search was conducted on April 30, 2020.
Results: Of the 633 articles identified, 232 articles (n = 119,774 participants) were selected for analysis. The majority of studies highlighted a statistically significant association between periodontal diseases and preterm birth (71 of 111 articles; 63.96%), low birth weight (46 of 64 articles; 71.87%), preterm low birth weight (29 of 49 articles; 59.18%), preeclampsia (31 of 45 articles; 68.89%) and other pregnancy complications, such as preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes (17 of 26 articles; 65.38%). Geographical analysis revealed that clinical studies were conducted in 51 countries, primarily in the United States (42 studies, 18.10%), Brazil (33 studies, 14.22%) and India (25 studies, 10.78%). Irrespective of geographical location, analysis showed various degrees of evidence of a relationship between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Conclusion: The majority of the studies found a statistically significant link between periodontal diseases and some complications of pregnancy. The strength of such a link varies according to type of study, type of variable and outcome measure selected.
Keywords: periodontal diseases, pregnancy, adverse pregnancy outcomes, mapping
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b927695, PubMed ID (PMID): 33511822Pages 85-92, Language: English
Purpose: To determine how the currently available techniques of scaling and root planing, used either alone or with additional polishing techniques, affect the substance thickness and surface roughness of enamel and cementum.
Materials and Methods: After extraction, impacted third molars were prepared and subjected to air polishing with a nonabrasive powder, ultrasonic scaling, or hand instrumentation. All three techniques were performed alone and in combinations for a total of 9 treatment groups. The control group consisted of untreated surfaces. Optical microcoordination measurements were conducted to separately assess substance loss, mean roughness depth (Rz), and roughness average (Ra) on enamel and cementum. The Rz results were analysed using a t-test for paired samples.
Results: Air polishing alone and with additional rubber-cup polishing using a paste were the only two approaches which caused no enamel loss. Both groups also entailed less cementum loss (≤ 20 μm) than any of the other seven groups, and both yielded the most favorable Rz results on enamel. Air polishing alone was the only group to reveal no significant change in Rz from untreated cementum (p = 0.999). The other 8 approaches statistically significantly reduced the surface roughness of cementum (p ≤ 0.017).
Conclusion: Air polishing with a nonabrasive powder yielded the best hard-tissue preservation. Combining any of the scaling techniques with additional polishing was not beneficial; on the contrary, they caused even more abrasion of hard tissue on both enamel and cementum.
Keywords: cementum, enamel, hand instruments, substance loss, surface roughness, ultrasonic air polishing
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b927709, PubMed ID (PMID): 33511823Pages 93-99, Language: English
Purpose: Preschool children with early childhood caries (ECC) frequently exhibit extreme dental anxiety and fear, posing a considerable challenge to paediatric dentists for their treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of uncooperative preschool children using an Arabic version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (A-ECOHIS).
Materials and Methods: A pre-validated A-ECOHIS was used to assess the sensitivity and responsiveness. Fiftyone children, uncooperative with conventional dental care, underwent SDF treatment; their mothers answered the A-ECOHIS before and 4 weeks after treatment. Based on the global transition rating (GTR), the mothers rated their child’s oral health condition following SDF treatment.
Results: SDF effectively arrested caries after 4 weeks in all children. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean scores of the total A-ECOHIS, child impact scale and family impact scores at follow-up (Wilcoxon signedrank test; p ˂ 0.001). There were statistically significant changes in the mean GTR of children’s oral health.
Conclusions: A-ECOHIS was sensitive and responsive to SDF treatment. SDF statistically significantly improved the OHRQoL of uncooperative preschool children.
Keywords: children, dental caries, mothers, silver diamine fluoride, quality of life
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b927717, PubMed ID (PMID): 33511824Pages 101-106, Language: English
Purpose: Obesity and dental caries constitute an important public health problem worldwide. Special-needs children are at higher risk of developing dental caries and obesity because of their physical, neurological, or behavioural impairment or due to side effects of the medications they take. The present study was conducted to assess the association between dental caries and obesity among children with special health care needs in Taif City, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 (220 girls and 180 boys) special-needs children. Body mass index (BMI) was determined by using height and weight measurements. Dental caries was recorded according to World Health Organization criteria. The association between caries and obesity was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Results: 289 (72.3%) children presented with caries with mean dmft and DMFT of 3.9 ± 2.7 and 4.8 ± 2.3, respectively. Regression analysis showed specials needs children were at a greater risk of having dental caries: 1.69 times (CI: 0.18–2.62, p < 0.05) greater with obesity; 2.01 (CI: 0.18–3.09, p < 0.05) times greater with sugar consumption; 2.21 times (CI: 1.27–4.12, p < 0.001) greater with cerebral palsy; and 2.27 (CI: 1.29–5.12, p < 0.001) times greater with intellectual disability.
Conclusion: The present study showed a positive association between dental caries and obesity among children of special health care needs. Hence, a focused approach towards the common risk factors is essential to prevent both obesity and dental caries in special-needs children.
Keywords: dental caries, obesity, special needs
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b965699, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600087Pages 107-113, Language: English
Purpose: To identify the oral hygiene habits and denture hygiene status (e.g. sociodemographic characteristics, general health status) of complete denture wearers in Central Transylvania, Romania.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was based on an original self-administered questionnaire. It included 162 patients who experienced complete tooth loss in one or both jaws and wore polymethylmethacrylate acrylic (PMMA) complete dentures. The exclusion criteria were partial dentures, dentures fabricated from materials other than PMMA, and the patient being unable to provide all the required information. The questionnaire solicited information regarding sociodemographic status, general health and oral hygiene-related habits. The dentures were clinically evaluated in order to assess denture hygiene.
Results: Most respondents were completely edentulous (38.0% wore maxillary dentures, 10.6% mandibular dentures, while 51.6% had both), with an average age above 60, all wearing dentures. The clinical evaluation of the dentures revealed that 12.3% exhibited optimal hygiene status, 40.1% good, 32.7% unsatisfactory and 14.8% bad, with more women than men having well-cleaned dentures. Cleaning frequency was found to be 2–3 times per day for 54.3% of the patients, with 93.2% of the subjects using a toothbrush and 76.5% using toothpaste. Most of the participants felt at ease with the cleaning procedures. Only 30.9% of the respondents reported denture removal overnight. The results showed that the hygiene of the patients’ dentures was not correlated with their answers regarding oral hygiene habits.
Conclusions: Competent oral health and denture hygiene promotion should be established, especially regarding nocturnal denture removal, denture hygiene methods, instruments and cleaning frequency.
Keywords: complete dentures, denture cleaners, oral hygiene habits, nocturnal wear, stomatitis
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b965717, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600088Pages 115-120, Language: English
Purpose: Psychosocial impacts on quality of life among adolescents with access to affordable dental care is not well documented. In addition, dental pain is accelerating towards a public health problem that needs immediate attention. The objective was to determine impacts on quality of life using the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) frequency scale and to determine prevalence of dental pain with its impact. Methods: A total of 288 students (mean age 15.72 ± 1.5) completed the survey instrument (sociodemographic variables, consumption of chocolates/candies, perceived need for dental care, history of dental pain in last 6 months and OIDP frequency scale) designed to measure subjective oral health indicators. Mean OIDP simple count scores were analysed using logistic regression and additive (ADD) scores for dental pain were compared using student’s t test.
Results: The response rate was 96%. About 44.4% reported impacts affecting daily performances. About 11.4% consumed tobacco and 92.7% consumed forms of refined sugars. About 39% perceived a need for dental care and 32.3% experienced dental pain with problem in eating and cleaning teeth. Those not perceiving a need for dental care were more likely to have an impact (OR: 2.3; CI: 1.2–4.4). Males had higher OIDP ADD scores for dental pain than females (p = 0.015).
Conclusion: Overall impact was less than 50%. Dental pain was reported among students with access to dental care with impacts on eating and cleaning of teeth. Oral health promotion needs to be reinforced by strengthening school community relationship.
Keywords: adolescent, child, quality of life, school health services, dental care, dental pain
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b965731, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600089Pages 121-128, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a full-mouth disinfection protocol (FMD) on periodontal parameters, glycaemic control and subgingival microbiota of periodontal patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as those without diabetes.
Materials and Methods: This study included 33 patients with periodontitis. Eleven of them were type 1 diabetes patients, 11 were type 2 diabetes patients, and 11 were non-diabetics. At baseline and 3 months after the FMD, the periodontal parameters of each patient were recorded, samples of capillary blood for the chairside assessment of HbA1c were taken, and plaque samples from the two deepest periodontal pockets were collected to test for the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Tannerella forsythia (Tf) and Treponema denticola (Td).
Results: Bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased statistically significantly (p
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, full-mouth disinfection, HbA1c, periodontitis, subgingival microbiota
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b965741, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600090Pages 129-135, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the association between orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and periodontal health during treatment by examining gingival inflammation indices and saliva properties.
Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive orthodontic patients, aged 11–18 years old, who were eligible for fixed orthodontic appliances, were included in the study. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), salivary pH and flow rate were recorded at three timepoints: immediately before placement of orthodontic fixed appliances (T0), and 1 (T1) and 3 months (T2) after bonding.
Results: The hypothesis that PI would remain constant across timepoints was rejected. PI increased over time (0 to 1 scale, T1-T0: mean diff. = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.18, p = 0.01; T2-T0: mean diff. = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.24, p < 0.001). On the other hand, GI changed statistically significantly over time (p = 0.05). Patients’ age was not a predictor for PI change (p = 0.93), but it was for GI (p = 0.01). As anticipated, average PI was found to be higher for the mandibular dentition by 0.10 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.16) and the labial surfaces of teeth of both jaws by 0.51 (95% CI = 0.45, 0.57).
Conclusions: Within the framework of the current study, orthodontic treatment appeared to affect the periodontal health of patients, but the changes were clinically negligible and not consistently statistically significant.
Keywords: fixed orthodontic appliances, gingival index, periodontal health, plaque index
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b966767, PubMed ID (PMID): 33615769Pages 137-147, Language: English
Purpose: To compare clinical outcomes and oral fluid biomarkers in gingivitis subjects using an electric toothbrush/irrigator combination (test) or a manual toothbrush alone (control) over 8 weeks.
Materials and Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of n = 30. In both groups, toothbrushing was performed twice daily at home and no additional interdental cleaning aids were allowed. Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), whole saliva (WS), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, and 8.
Results: Subjects’ mean age was 23 years and 52% were female. Overall baseline means were 1.31 for PLI, 1.07 for GI, and 34.9 for number of bleeding sites. At every follow-up visit, both groups differed statistically significantly (p < 0.001) from baseline for all clinical parameters. The test group demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater reductions in GI vs the control group by 18% at week 2, 17% at week 4 and 24% at week 8. The test group also demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.002) greater reductions in the number of bleeding sites vs the control group by 33% at week 2, 34% at week 4 and 43% at week 8. Between-group comparisons for both WS and GCF revealed numerical trends for decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β in GCF after 4 and 8 weeks, but these were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: In subjects using the electric toothbrush/irrigator combination, increased clinical improvements may be found accompanied by similarly improved trends for oral fluid biomarkers such as IL-1β.
Keywords: gingival crevicular fluid, gingivitis, prevention, toothbrushing
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b966783, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600091Pages 149-156, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between periodontal parameters and lipid profiles.
Subjects and Methods: A total of 48 subjects with dyslipidemia, consisting of 33 subjects who did not receive lipid-lowering medication (NLM) and 15 subjects who did receive lipid-lowering medication (LM) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Sixteen systemically healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined. The variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, gender, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI), were evaluated.
Results: The LM group had a statistically significantly higher CAL in comparison with either the control or the NLM groups. TG was statistically significantly correlated with PD (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.001) and CAL (ρ = 0.349, p = 0.005). HDL-C was negatively correlated with PI (ρ = -0.371, p = 0.003), GI (ρ = -0.284, p = 0.025), and PD (ρ = -0.289, p = 0.023). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that BMI was statistically significantly associated with percentage of sites with BOP (β = 0.367, p = 0.003) and PD (β = 0.392, p = 0.002). CAL was statistically significantly influenced by age (β = 0.496, p
Keywords: body mass index, dyslipidemia, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, periodontal disease
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b966793, PubMed ID (PMID): 33600092Pages 157-167, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the positive effects of a CPC-, GK2-, and TXA-based (CPC/GK2/TXA) mouthwash after implant placement.
Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (n = 20) who underwent posterior implant-placement surgery were randomly and evenly allocated to the study or the placebo group. After the mouthwash was used 3x/day for 7 to 10 days postoperatively, sutures were analysed by counting the colony-forming units (CFU) for total aerobes, total G [-] anaerobes, total enterobacteria and total H. influenzae, followed by Real-Time PCR of bacterial-specific DNAs of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, P. intermedia, P. micra, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, and E. corrodens. In vitro resistance of P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa was analysed. The compatibility of the mouthwash with Straumann SLA implant surfaces was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: Sixteen patients (n = 16) completed the trial. A statistically significantly greater number of CFU was found in the placebo group for almost all species, especially for total G [-] anaerobes. No statistically significant in vitro resistance was found for P. gingivalis, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. SEM revealed no surface alteration after exposure to the mouthwash.
Conclusion: The use of a CPC/GK2/TXA mouthwash inhibited propagation of the bacteria extracted from the post-surgical sutures after implant placement.
Keywords: antibacterial agents, biofilms, implantology, microbiology, periodontology
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b972947, PubMed ID (PMID): 33615770Pages 169-177, Language: English
Purpose: This study aimed to obtain the oral health-related factors of patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) from family caregivers and to relate caregiver-perceived risk factors to dental treatment needs of patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dyads of patients (mean [SD] age = 29.1 [8.4] years) and their family caregivers (mean [SD] age = 56.5 [9.5] years) were included. Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires by caregivers and oral examinations by a dentist. Oral health conditions of patients were analysed in different age groups using paired t-tests. Caregiver-perceived oral health conditions of patients and dentist-assessed caries and periodontal disease were compared using Pearson’s chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests. Relationships between patient factors and treatment needs were analysed using multiple logistic regression.
Results: Tooth pain, chewing difficulty, and reasons for the last dental visit were associated with high numbers of decayed teeth (DT) (p
Keywords: caregiver, caries, DMFT, intellectual disability, oral health, periodontal index
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1074601, PubMed ID (PMID): 33723977Pages 179-188, Language: English
Purpose: Analgesics (painkillers) are one of the most widely used medications to reduce and control pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the self-medication with analgesics (narcotic or non-narcotic) in controlling odontogenic pain in patients visiting dental offices, dental clinics, and the dental school of Kerman.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study, conducted in 2018. The study sample included patients referring to dental offices, dental clinics and the dental school of Kerman. After obtaining informed consent, a questionnaire consisting of demographic data and questions regarding the consumption of different types of analgesics for relieving and controlling odontogenic pain and their impact on patients was given by the researcher to the respondents. The patients were asked to complete and return the forms. The questionnaire consisted of three categories of questions, including demographic data, pain characteristics (severity, aggravating factors, relieving factors, etc) and the drug used to relieve the pain. Pain severity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS.
Results: This study included 230 males and 351 females (male:female ratio = 0.66) in the age range of 18 to 71 years old (38.21 ± 7.45). 2.6% of respondents were illiterate and 11.3% of respondents were unemployed. The mean value of pain intensity was 6.21 ± 1.11 on a scale of 1 to 10. The types of drugs used for pain relief included 71.8% analgesics, 12.1% complementary medicines and 16.1% antibiotics. The most commonly used medication was NSAIDS, followed by acetaminophen codeine. In this study, the fourth most common medication consumed by patients as an analgesic was amoxicillin. Moreover, it showed that 44.3% (257 individuals) of study participants had used analgesics as self-medication to relieve odontogenic pain, of which 46.08% were males (N = 107) and 42.68% were females (N = 150). The gender of respondents, level of education, and occupation were significantly associated with the consumption of opioid drugs (p = 0.023, p = 0.041, p = 0.011, respectively). Consumption of opioid medications was not statistically significantly correlated with pain intensity (p = 0.115).
Conclusion: The factors affecting the appropriate use of medications are social, economic, cultural, and flaws in the health-care system of a society. This study showed that the medications used to reduce pain included analgesics, traditional drugs, and antibiotics. The rate of self-medication was higher among men and among those having a higher level of education.
Keywords: analgesic, dentistry, narcotic, odontogenic pain, self-medication
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1075081, PubMed ID (PMID): 33723978Pages 189-194, Language: English
Purpose: In 2017, Saudi Arabia introduced a 120% tax on energy drinks and a 50% tax on soft drinks. The impact of this policy on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among schoolchildren is not known in this country. The present study evaluated the impact of the excise tax on SSB consumption in the tri-city metropolitan area of Dammam-Khobar-Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: A repeated cross-sectional design was used to examine the difference between pre- and post-tax SSBs consumption among schoolchildren (12–14 years old) in Dammam-Khobar-Dhahran cities. A beverage-consumption frequency questionnaire was completed by 453 participants before the tax implementation and 334 participants after the tax implementation. The tax on soft drinks was increased by 50% and on energy drinks by 120%. Pre-tax data were collected in May 2017 and post-tax data in April 2018.
Results: The proportion of participants who consumed energy drinks was 46.1% (95% CI: 42-51) before tax implementation, decreasing to 38.4% (95% CI: 33-44) after tax implementation, a reduction of nearly 8%. 92.5% (95% CI: 90-95) of the participants consumed soft drinks before tax implementation and 94.6% (95% CI: 92-97) did so after tax implementation, an increase of about 2%.
Conclusions: The study showed no statistically significant impact of tax implementation on the consumption of energy drinks and soft drinks in this sample of children.
Keywords: energy drinks, sugar consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sugar tax
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1075109, PubMed ID (PMID): 33723979Pages 195-202, Language: English
Purpose: A novel anhydrous toothpaste formulation has been developed containing the anti-dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) ingredient stannous fluoride (SnF2).
Materials and Methods: This randomised, controlled, examiner-blind, parallel-group, stratified (by baseline Schiff sensitivity score) study compared efficacy of an experimental ‘Test’ toothpaste (n = 67) containing 0.454% SnF2, 0.072% sodium fluoride and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (all percentages w/w) with a negative ‘Control’ 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste (n = 68) in relieving DH in healthy Chinese adults. After 4–6 weeks acclimatisation, DH was assessed at baseline and following 4 and 8 weeks’ twice-daily brushing by response to evaporative (air) (Schiff sensitivity score) and tactile (Yeaple probe) stimuli. An analysis of covariance model was used (factor: treatment group; covariate: baseline Schiff sensitivity score).
Results: Both Test and Control toothpastes statistically significantly reduced Schiff sensitivity score from baseline after 8 weeks’ use; the Test toothpaste also statistically significantly reduced the score after 4 weeks’ use (all p < 0.001). The Test toothpaste reduction was statistically significantly superior to the Control toothpaste reduction at both timepoints (p < 0.001). Percentage differences in treatment effects between Test and Control groups were 24.1% at 4 weeks and 31.7% at 8 weeks. Tactile threshold scores for both treatments statistically significantly increased from baseline at both timepoints (all p < 0.001); however, there were no statistically significant differences between Test and Control groups. Both toothpastes were well-tolerated with no adverse events reported.
Conclusion: The Test toothpaste containing 0.454% SnF2 reduced DH statistically significantly more than the Control as evaluated by the Schiff sensitivity score, but not by tactile threshold.
Keywords: dentifrices, dentin hypersensitivity, randomised controlled trial, tin fluorides
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1075107, PubMed ID (PMID): 33723980Pages 203-216, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the comprehensive effects of photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy on teeth after active orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Six databases were electronically searched and screened for eligible human and animal studies published up to August 2020. The risk of bias was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Experiment Tool. Two independent reviewers performed all procedures in duplicate. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion or consultation with a third reviewer.
Results: A total of 395 records were identified from the initial search up to August 2020. Following screening, 16 full-text articles were reviewed for eligibility (κ > 0.90), and ultimately 9 studies (3 clinical studies and 6 animal studies) were included in this review. The key outcomes observed were ‘tooth position maintenance’ and ‘root resorption rehabilitation’. Two controlled clinical trials and two animal studies supported the preventive effects of PBM therapy on the relapse of post-orthodontic tooth positions, while the other two animal studies reported opposing findings. Regarding root resorption, all evidence supported the rehabilitation potential using PBM therapy for teeth that had undergone orthodontic tooth movement. There was a high risk of bias among studies, except for one randomised controlled trial. Due to the substantial heterogeneity among studies in terms of their types, participants, designs, PBM therapy settings and variables of interest, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis; therefore, a qualitative synthesis is presented.
Conclusion: The quality of evidence for PBM therapy contributing to the maintenance of tooth position or improved dental health after orthodontic treatment remains low. There is considerable controversy over the effects of PBM therapy on orthodontic relapse. However, the use of PBM therapy after orthodontic treatment has promising effects for root resorption rehabilitation and is generally recommended.
Keywords: orthodontic retention, orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption, photobiomodulation therapy, systematic review
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1179509, PubMed ID (PMID): 33829719Pages 217-227, Language: English
Purpose: To develop an evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on caries management for the Malaysian population using the ADAPTE trans-contextual adaptation framework.
Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted to identify all CPGs related to caries management on guideline repository websites and other platforms. The search findings were screened and the quality of the identified guidelines was evaluated using the AGREE II tool. The currency and the content of the recommendations were assessed by multidisciplinary experts for local adaptation.
Results: Following an extensive assessment, six high-quality CPGs were selected for adaptation. Subsequent to the content assessment, the multidisciplinary experts agreed to adopt 24 recommendations, adapt 55, and exclude two recommendations. The adaptation process generated 21 recommendations for caries management in Malaysia. The formulation of the final evidence-based recommendations for caries management in Malaysia was based on the feedback given by the external reviewers.
Conclusion: The use of the trans-contextual adaptation process is feasible for the development of local guidelines when there are scarce resources and insufficient local evidence. The involvement of the multidisciplinary experts ensures the comprehensiveness of the CPG in terms of its quality and validity and subsequently promotes adherence and ownership of the CPG at the local settings.
Keywords: adaptation, ADAPTE, caries management, clinical practice guidelines, evidence-based
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1179501, PubMed ID (PMID): 33829720Pages 229-233, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate Kin Gingival (Laboratorios KIN) twice daily for 2 months. Gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices were assessed.
Results: There were statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of miswak and chlorhexidine
mouthwashes in terms of gingivitis. The means of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices using miswak mouthwash were 1.2, 0.4, and 0.53, respectively, i.e. indicating lower effectiveness, than when 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash was used (0.87, 0.43, 0.23, respectively).
Conclusion: Miswak mouthwash is a good oral hygiene agent especially for long-term use even if its efficacy is
lower than chlorhexidine mouthwash.
Keywords: chlorhexidine, gingivitis, miswak, mouthwash, oral health
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1176847, PubMed ID (PMID): 33829721Pages 235-243, Language: English
Purpose: This systematic review addressed flap designs in endodontic surgery which can have an impact on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL).
Materials and Methods: Four electronic databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus) to identify all studies up to November 2019 that investigated the effect of flap designs on gingival recession and quality of life among healthy adults.
Results: The initial search identified 2701 references. Ten studies were included in this systematic review; two
were randomised clinical trials and eight were non-randomised clinical trials. Studies showed that sulcular incision increases the risk of gingival recession and decreases OHRQoL. Two studies were included in the meta-analysis in relation to gingival recession. The pooled results demonstrated that submarginal incision showed a decreased weighted mean difference in gingival recession by 0.31 mm (95% CI: 0.12 – 0.51) (p = 0.002) compared to sulcular incision.
Conclusion: Sulcular incision flap unfavourably affect the level of gingiva and OHRQoL. All nonrandomised studies had a statistically significant bias and the sample sizes in all studies were relatively small. More gingival recession and lower OHRQoL were associated with sulcular incision. Additional investigations are warranted to provide more evidence.
Keywords: flap incision, gingival recession, oral health quality of life, surgical endodontic treatment, systematic review
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1248897, PubMed ID (PMID): 33881287Pages 245-253, Language: English
Purpose: To determine the oral health status among adult employees in Kuwait.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample (n = 1294) of adult employees. Their ages ranged from 19 to 77 years (mean 36.2). Six trained and calibrated dentists examined them using a mouth mirror and a WHO ball-tip probe. Caries was scored using WHO diagnostic criteria. The debris index simplified (DI-S) score was used to assess oral hygiene status.
Results: Overall, the mean DMFT in the adults was 10.3. The DMFT increased from 7.8 for the age group 19–24 years to 10.7 at 35–44 years and 18.9 at 65–77 years (p < 0.001). Females had slightly higher caries experience (DMFT) (11.0) than did males (10.1) (p = 0.021), and Kuwaitis (11.1) more than non-Kuwaitis (8.9) (p < 0.001). The proportion of caries-free adults was 28%. In multivariate analysis, adults with poor oral hygiene (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2-2.1), those with an intermediate-school (grades 6 to 9) or lower level of education (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.4-4.7), Kuwaitis (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.0-1.7), those with oral pain (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.0-1.8), and those needing urgent dental care (OR=4.6; 95% CI=2.6-8.0) were statistically significantly associated with caries risk. About 19.6% of these adults had good, 36.1% fair and 44.4% had poor oral hygiene. Nearly one-third (32.9%) of adults had perceived oral pain at the time of examination.
Conclusion: Implementing oral health programs is needed and efforts should be made to promote oral hygiene practices in workplaces among adults in Kuwait.
Keywords: adult employees, dental caries, Kuwait, oral health, oral hygiene, oral pain
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1248937, PubMed ID (PMID): 33881288Pages 255-261, Language: English
Purpose: Systemic inflammation is characteristic for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is responsible for the accumulation of its disease-specific Tau-protein and β-amyloid plaques. Studies focusing on an association with periodontitis showed worse periodontal conditions in patients with dementia, but until now, no study has investigated the differences between AD and other forms of dementia (noAD/DEM). Expecting severe periodontal disease in AD, the aim of this pilot-study was to compare the periodontal and dental status in patients with either AD or noAD/DEM.
Materials and Methods: Twenty patients recently diagnosed with AD and 20 with noAD/DEM between the ages of 50 and 70 years were recruited at the Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Münster, Germany and clinically examined at the Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Münster, Germany. Neuropsychological testing, levels of Tau-protein and β-amyloid in serum and liquor were used to distinguish between both groups. Dental and periodontal parameters such as clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding-on-probing (BOP), radiographic bone loss, full-mouth plaque score (FMPS), and missing and restored teeth were recorded.
Results: Periodontitis was diagnosed in all patients. Patients with AD presented mean BOP of 54.7 ± 31.1% and radiographic bone loss of 42.5 ± 25.3%; the mean BOP of those with noAD/DEM was 52.0 ± 23.7% and radiographic bone loss was 40.9 ± 32.3%. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding other periodontal and dental parameters.
Conclusions: Both patients with AD and noAD/DEM had periodontal disease. Consequently, patients with all forms of dementia (AD/other) need special dental care to improve periodontal and oral health.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, dental care, oral health, periodontal disease
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1248965, PubMed ID (PMID): 33881289Pages 263-270, Language: English
Purpose: To use and evaluate two methods for measuring gingival thickness (GT) at mandibular incisors of orthodontic patients and compare their performance in assessing periodontal anatomy through soft tissue thickness.
Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 40 consecutive adult orthodontic patients. GT was measured just before bracket placement at both central mandibular incisors, mid-facially on the buccal aspect, 2 mm apically to the free gingival margin with two methods: clinically with an ultrasound device (USD) and radiographically with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Results: CBCT measurements were consistently higher than USD measurements, with the difference ranging from 0.13 mm to 0.21 mm. No statistically significant difference was noted between the repeated CBCT measurements at the right central incisor (bias = 0.05 mm; 95% CI = -0.01, 0.11; p = 0.104). Although the respective results for the left incisor statistically indicated that the measurements were not exactly replicated, the magnitude of the point estimate was small and not clinically significant (bias = 0.06 mm; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.11; p = 0.014). Small differences between CBCT measurements made by the 2 examiners at the left central incisor (bias = 0.06 mm; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.11; p = 0.014) were detected. However, this difference was minor and also not clinically significant. The respective analysis on the right incisor showed no statistically significant difference (bias = 0.05 mm; 95% CI = -0.01, 0.11; p = 0.246).
Conclusions: Based on reproducibility, CBCT imaging for gingival thickness assessment proved to be as reliable as ultrasound determination. However, CBCT consistently yielded higher values, albeit at a marginal level, than did the ultrasound device.
Keywords: cone-beam CT, gingival phenotype, periodontal tissue, ultrasound
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1248969, PubMed ID (PMID): 33881290Pages 271-277, Language: English
Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health crisis worldwide and it also has generated new challenges for dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of the parents of pediatric patients about dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic through a questionnaire.
Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 multiple-choice questions and demographic information about the knowledge and attitudes of parents regarding dental treatment during the COVID-19 outbreak was used for the study. The participants were parents of pediatric patients (aged 8–14 years) who visited for a routine orthodontic examination at the department of orthodontics.
Results: A total of 250 participants responded to the questionnaire. The findings indicate that more than 95% of parents had information about the transmission paths of the virus, took COVID-19 seriously, and told their children about this disease. 34% of the parents thought that dental clinics were more dangerous than other social areas, and 39.2% thought their children could be infected by medical instruments during dental treatment. A statistically significant difference was observed between educational levels in the answers given about the transmission paths of the virus, the danger of dental clinics in terms of the virus, the permitted dental treatment procedures, and the personal protective equipment of the dentist (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Although most parents have information about COVID-19, there are differences in the knowledge and attitudes of parents during the pandemic period according to their educational level.
Keywords: COVID-19, pediatric dentistry, cross-infection control, dental treatment
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1452865, PubMed ID (PMID): 34057337Pages 279-285, Language: English
Purpose: To explore potential caries risk indicators in 3- to 5-year-old children, and develop a simple risk-score model to screen the children at high risk of caries with decayed, filled, and missing teeth (dmft) > 2.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 2746 children 3 to 5 years of age was conducted in Sichuan province. Children were examined for dmft index, and sociodemographic and behavioural factors were acquried through a questionnaire completed by their caregivers. A prediction model was developed by backward multivariate logistic regression, and its overfitting degree was examined with 5-fold cross-validation. A simple risk-score model was derived to screen the children with dmft > 2 at high risk of caries with the β regression coefficient obtained from the multivariate regression model.
Results: A child’s oral health status was identified as the highest risk indicator with a β regression coefficient of 1.093. The mean area under curve (AUC) from the 5-fold cross-validation was 0.7408 (95% CI: 72.21%, 75.95%), with a bias of only ca 1%. This result allowed us to eliminate substantial overfitting of the prediction model. The AUC of the risk scoring system was 0.7455 (95% CI: 72.70%, 76.40%), which indicated good screenability.
Conclusions: This risk score model has the advantages of simplicity, low cost and relatively high accuracy, and is suitable for use in developing countries, especially for primary screening for high risk of caries. It shows that certain child behaviours and parental attitude play an important role in dental caries among preschool children.
Keywords: children, dental caries, epidemiology, high risk, risk score model
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1452911, PubMed ID (PMID): 34057338Pages 287-294, Language: English
Purpose: To analyse the taste function in a pool of untreated patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) with tongue lesions (n = 35) and without tongue lesions (n = 36) and to compare it to healthy subjects (n = 36).
Materials and Methods: Firstly, the subjective overall taste ability and impairment of the sensations of ‘sweet’, ‘sour’, ‘salty’ and ‘bitter’ were recorded in all three groups. Secondly, taste function was tested in all included subjects using the standardised ‘Taste Strips’ test.
Results: Data showed a statistically statistically significant difference in overall taste perception between OLP patients with tongue lesions and control subjects (p = 0.027) for the tested taste function. The sensation of ‘sour’ showed the most pronounced difference (p = 0.08). The subjective taste perception and that of individual taste qualities did not differ statistically significantly between the three groups, and the correlation between subjective and objective taste perception was low. There was also a low correlation between taste scores and the presence of lesions on different areas of the tongue.
Conclusion: For patients with OLP experiencing a loss in appetite, a formal taste examination and subsequent counselling should be considered.
Keywords: mucocutaneous disorders, oral lichen planus, taste/taste physiology, tongue
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1452963, PubMed ID (PMID): 34057339Pages 295-299, Language: English
Purpose: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between ABO blood groups and periodontal diseases.
Materials and Methods: Four hundred sixteen subjects (223 females, 193 males) were recruited according to the eligibility criteria. Periodontal examination was performed, including full-mouth plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment level (CAL), and interproximal bone loss (IBL). ABO blood group patterns were determined based on self-reports, confirmed by medical records. The chi-squared test was done to evaluate the data (p < 0.05).
Results: Out of the 416 subjects, 52.2% were blood group O, whereas 27.8% were blood group A. 46.8% of patients with blood group O had gingivitis and 49.6% had periodontitis. 31.2% of patients with blood group A had gingivitis,while 29.5% had periodontitis. The blood group with the lowest percentage among patients with gingivitis was AB, with a rate of 6.2%; in this blood group, 8.1% had periodontitis.
Conclusions: There is no association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood group types.
Keywords: ABO blood-group system, genetic, gingivitis, periodontitis, Rh-Hr blood-group system
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1453013, PubMed ID (PMID): 34057340Pages 301-309, Language: English
Purpose: Grape-seed extract (GSE) contains polyphenols that readily adhere to proteins and modify the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP). The first step in biofilm formation is bacterial adhesion to the AEP-covered enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to test whether AEP modification with GSE, fluoride (F-), or their combination (GSE+F-) modulates bacterial adhesion, biofilm metabolism and composition, or cariogenic demineralisation of the enamel.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised 3 parts: 1) single-strain Streptococcus gordonii species, 2) a five-species biofilm model, or 3) biofilm (re-)formation using the five-species biofilm model after removal of initial biofilm with toothbrushing. Human whole-mouth stimulated saliva was used to form an AEP on human enamel specimens. The AEP was incubated in water (control), or modified with GSE, F-, or GSE+F-. Bacterial adhesion, biofilm diversity, metabolic activity, biofilm mass, and cariogenic demineralisation (surface hardness) of enamel were assessed after incubation in bacterial broths after 4 h or 22 h. Differences between groups were analysed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni tests.
Results: GSE and GSE+F- statistically significantly decreased single-strain S. gordonii adhesion, but had no relevant influence when the five-species biofilm model was used. In the biofilm (re-)formation model, GSE reduced bacterial adhesion compared to GSE+F-, while F- caused less cariogenic demineralisation than was found in the control group.
Conclusion: AEP modified with GSE retards S. gordonii adhesion, but it does not influence the formation, metabolism and composition of a cariogenic multi-species biofilm.
Keywords: biofilms, caries, dental pellicle, enamel, fluoride, grape-seed extract, pellicle modification
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1453071, PubMed ID (PMID): 34057341Pages 311-319, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment, performed by undergraduate dental students, on oral health-related quality of life of patients with periodontitis.
Materials and Methods: An observational, prospective, single-arm cohort study with pre‑post test involving 31 undergraduate dental students was performed. A complete periodontal examination was performed before and after receiving nonsurgical periodontal treatment. The main independent clinical variables assessed were the degree of periodontal inflammation and the number of teeth with periodontitis. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed before and after treatment through the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) questionnaire. The association between the extent of periodontal treatment (measured as number of treated teeth) and final OIDP score was assessed, adjusting for age, sex, and baseline OIDP, in a multiple regression model.
Results: Thirty-four patients were enrolled and treated by the undergraduate students. The mean OIDP value (global absolute score), representing the severity and frequency of the impacts, decreased from 26.2 to 12 after treatment. The mean percentage of impact, representing the number dimensions affected by oral health (global percent score), was reduced from 13% to 6%. However, no association between the number of treated teeth and post-treatment OIDP score was observed after adjusting for age, sex, and baseline OIDP score.
Conclusion: Nonsurgical periodontal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students improved the oral health-related quality of life of periodontal patients, although no statistically significant association was found between the extent of periodontal treatment and the final OIDP score.
Keywords: dental, oral health, periodontal debridement, periodontitis, students, quality of life
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1492771, PubMed ID (PMID): 34060733Pages 321-326, Language: English
Purpose: Pigmentation of gingiva is an aesthetic problem. Until now, various methods have been introduced for removal of gingival pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to compare bur abrasion and CO2 laser methods in removing gingival pigmentation.
Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 20–40 years old with the chief complaint of physiologic gingival pigmentation participated in this study. For these patients, gingival depigmentation was performed using two treatment modalities including bur abrasion and CO2 laser in a split-mouth design. Gingival depigmentation was performed in the right half of the anterior maxillary and mandibular sextants using bur abrasion method by means of diamond bur on a high-speed headpiece with vigorous water irrigation and the left half of the anterior maxillary and mandibular sextants using a CO2 laser. CO2 laser was set at: peak power 252 watts, repeat time 20 ms and pulse duration 200 microsecond which was used in a non-contact position. The area of pigmentation was calculated via gridlines in the Microsoft Paint software 1 and 6 months after the procedure. Gingival recession was also determined before, and at 1 and 6 months after the procedure.
Results: The area of gingival pigmentation was not statistically significantly different between the two treatment modalities before the procedure (p = 0.452), 1 month (p = 0.443) and 6 months after the procedure (p = 0.202). There was no statistically significant difference in the variance of pigmented area at different times in the two methods. In both CO2 laser and bur abrasion methods, the mean area of pigmentation was statistically significantly different in the follow-up period (p < 0/001), in a way that the change in the area of pigmentation was statistically significant 1 month after treatment (p <0.001) and also 6 months after treatment (p < 0.001) compared to before. The change in the area of pigmentation between 1 and 6 months after treatment was not statistically significant in both CO2 laser (p = 0.157) and bur abrasion method (p = 0.150). No increase in gingival recession was observed in any of the patients.
Conclusion: Both treatment modalities can effectively treat gingival pigmentation. No increase in gingival recession was observed. Conventional method and CO2 laser were not statistically significantly different during a follow-up period of 1 and 6 months.
Keywords: laser, bur abrasion, gingival depigmentation, pigmentation, CO2
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1749661, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259425Pages 327-337, Language: English
Purpose: To study the practices of general dentists, periodontists and dental hygienists who are members of the European Federation of Periodontology, regarding oral hygiene education, plaque control assessment, recommended dental and interdental hygiene tools, and antimicrobial agents.
Materials and Methods: A web-based survey was sent to 13,622 members of the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) through its 29 national member societies. It targeted general dentists (GD), specialists in periodontology (DSP) and dental hygienists (DH). Data were collected between 24 April and 17 May 2015. A data-driven statistical analysis was conducted and differences between professions were explored.
Results: A total of 2076 answers were collected. Only the 2009 answers originating from GD, DSP and DH were analysed (67 answers originated from other professions and were excluded). Among those 2009 respondents, 43.2% were DSP and 37.2% were GD. Overall, DH, DSP and GD reported spending 17.1 minutes for the initial teaching of OH, with differences between professions (p < 0.0001). DH, GD and DSP exhibited differences in the type of toothbrushes they recommend (p < 0.0001). DSP recommended electric and manual toothbrushes (TB) equally. DH predominantly recommended electric TB (56.8%). Overall, 95% of DH, DSP and GD recommended interdental brushes, with no statistically significant differences between professions. Low concentration chlorhexidine was considered the most relevant antimicrobial agent for daily oral care of periodontitis patients. Half of GD prescribed antimicrobial mouthrinses for long-term use in 70%–100% of their patients with periodontitis.
Conclusion: EFP-affiliated practitioners allocate a significant amount of time to educating patients on oral health. Their practices are mostly in line with the current scientific evidence. Some discrepancies were found between the different professions. Similar surveys could be conducted over time to monitor the evolution of practices.
Keywords: dental hygienist, oral hygiene, patient education as topic, periodontal diseases, periodontists, surveys and questionnaires
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1693919, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259426Pages 339-343, Language: English
Purpose: To assess how current COVID-19 restrictions regarding elective dental procedures influence patients’ self-reported oral health care needs at a University Hospital in Germany.
Materials and Methods: Patients with COVID-19 induced cancellation of elective treatment appointments previously scheduled for the period March 16th to April 30th 2020 were contacted by telephone and questioned about the occurrence of oral health problems, pain, self-reported treatment needs, and the use of emergency dental services. Data were analysed retrospectively.
Results: Information on 370 patients aged between 1 and 91 years was included. 16.2% (n = 60) of patients reported having experienced an oral health problem for which they requested timely dental treatment. Within this group, the most frequent complaints were pain or tooth hypersensitivity (42.4%, n = 26), insufficient restorations (28.8%, n = 17) and gingival or periodontal problems (23.7%, n = 14). Associations between the type of treatment pending and the report of an oral health problem were considerable for patients awaiting treatment under full anesthesia, surgical procedures and endodontic treatment (p = 0.001; 0.003 and 0.048, respectively). Problems were reported most frequently in these treatment groups, ranging from 27.7% to 100%, compared to 12.6% among patients scheduled for routine check-ups. Overall, 8.6% (n = 32) were experiencing pain, of whom 5 patients experienced constant pain. However, only 1.9% (n = 7) of patients made use of emergency dental services.
Conclusions: The results suggest that while the postponement of routine check-ups is justifiable during emergency situations, the long-term cancellation of surgical and endodontic therapies must be viewed critically.
Keywords: COVID-19, oral health, pandemics
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1694095, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259427Pages 345-351, Language: English
Purpose: To determine the impact of the brushing protocol on dentin wear by comparing continuous to intermittent brushing, with the same total time of brushing.
Materials and Methods: Dentin specimens (n = 120) were evently distributed into six groups (A–F). The samples were brushed with slurries of different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA): Groups A+B (Sident 2480-1; RDA 85), groups C+D (Zeodent 113; RDA 67), and groups E+F (Zeodent 103; RDA 174). Groups A+C+E were brushed continuously (25 min) with one slurry preparation, while groups B+D+F were brushed intermittently (25 x 1 min) with a renewal of the slurry after each sequence. Dentin wear was determined using surface profilometry and statistically analysed with ANOVA and post-hoc tests.
Results: Neither the mode of brushing (p = 0.72) nor the interaction (p = 0.18) of the brushing mode with the type of abrasive particles had a significant influence on the abrasive dentin wear. Only the type of abrasive particles had a statistically significant influence on abrasive dentin wear (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The mode of brushing (continuously or intermittently) has no influence on abrasive dentin wear.
Keywords: brushing, continuously, dentin wear, intermittently
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1693873, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259428Pages 353-363, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of dentists (dental students, dental school graduates/interns, postgraduate dentists) of the role of robotics (R) and artificial intelligence (AI) in oral health and preventive dentistry. The null hypothesis was that dentists would not be aware of R and AI use in dentistry and would not be ready to accept them in oral health and preventive dentistry for dental care management and training.
Materials and Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in which data was collected from a representative population in Saudi Arabia. 570 participants answered 26 closed-ended questions. The questionnaire’s validity and reliability were evaluated for vetting and remarks. The questionnaire collected demographic data of participants and their knowledge, perception and attitude about R and AI. Questions were to be answered with ‘yes’, ‘no’ and ‘I don’t know’. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the control chart technique and the chi-squared test, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05.
Results: The majority of the participants (n = 313; 54.6%) were males. Dental students, dentist school graduates/interns, and postgraduate dentists comprised of 58.8%, 18.2%, and 23.0% respectively. Most of the respondents gave affirmative answers for knowledge, attitude and perception of R and AI (58.3%, 67.4%, and 60.3%, respectively). Participants agreed that R and AI is beneficial in dentistry and would provide better results. Most (83.3%) would be willing to be treated using R/AI and would recommend (84.5%) treatment with R/AI, as shown in the control chart by affirmative answers. These were significantly above the overall affirmative answers, as the corresponding point lies above 95% UCL (upper confidence limit).
Conclusion: Most dentists were unacquainted with R and AI. Dentists had a positive attitude towards R/AI, but due to inadequate knowledge and understanding, its use and applications were very limited. There is significant need in the near future to increase awareness of this concept, as it may increase treatment efficiency and effectiveness.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, digital dentistry, oral health, questionnaire, robotics, survey
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1693857, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259429Pages 365-371, Language: English
Purpose: It is hypothesised that systemic calcitonin delivery with adjunct local platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) therapy is more effective in augmenting osseointegration than calcitonin delivery alone under experimental osteoporosis conditions. The primary objective of the present experiment was to assess the effect of systemic calcitonin delivery with and without adjunct local PRF therapy on osseointegration in ovariectomised osteoporotic rabbits.
Materials and Methods: Thirty female bilaterally ovariectomized rabbits were used. The animals were fed a low-calcium diet to establish a model for osteoporosis. In each animal, 2 implants were bilaterally placed in tibia. The animals were randomly divided equally into 3 groups. In group 1, no treatment was offered (control group). In groups 2 and 3, the animals received intramuscular injections of calcitonin without and with local PRF delivery prior to implant placement, respectively. All animals were euthanised at 12 weeks, and osseointegration was assessed as the gap widths between the bone and implant surface in the cervical, middle and apical third using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was also measured. p < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant.
Results: Gap widths in the cervical (p < 0.001), middle (p < 0.001) and apical third (p < 0.001) were statistically significantly higher in group 1 than groups 2 and 3. Gap widths in the cervical (p < 0.001), middle (p < 0.001) and apical third (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in group 3 than group 2. The mean BIC was statistically significantly higher in the cervical (p < 0.001), middle (p < 0.001) and apical third (p < 0.001) in group 3 compared with groups 2 and 3.
Conclusions: When used as an adjunct to calcitonin, PRF enhanced osseointegration in an experimental osteoporosis model. However, further well-designed studies with inclusion of additional groups (treatment with PRF alone) are needed.
Keywords: calcitonin, gap junctions, osseointegration, osteoporosis, platelet rich fibrin
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1694115, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259430Pages 373-381, Language: English
Purpose: To assess factors related to the prevalence of dental caries among adolescent schoolchildren attending marginalised schools in the West Bank area of Palestine.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in schools participating in the School Support Program (SSP). Fifty schools identified as marginalised by the SSP were stratified by district, student gender and grade level to select a random sample of 20 schools. Students in the 6th and 9th grades were screened by senior dental students to collect data about their weight, height, gingival health and caries experience. In addition, a structured in-person questionnaire was used to collect data about students’ oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, mother’s education and father’s employment.
Results: In total, 1282 students completed interviews and clinical screenings. The mean number of Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) was 6.4 ± 4.4. Sixty-four percent had moderate gingivitis and 73% had fair oral hygiene. ‘Recent visit to the dentist’ was associated with mother’s level of education (X2 = 22.06, p < 0.001) and father’s employment (X2 = 24.02, p < 0.001). The final regression model showed that grade (β = 0.31, p < 0.001), gender (β = 0.06, p < 0.03), recent visit to the dentist (β = −0.06, p < 0.03) and drinking fresh juices (β = −0.05, p < 0.05) were statistically significant in explaining the high level of caries in this sample.
Conclusions: This study indicates that Palestinian adolescents in marginalised governmental schools suffer the highest burden of dental disease and are disproportionally impacted when compared to other same-age students in the region. A high burden of disease was directly associated with unfavourable dietary habits, poor oral hygiene practices and challenges to accessing dental care services, and was indirectly associated with father’s employment and mother’s level of education.
Keywords: adolescents, body mass index, dental caries, dietary habits, DMFT
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1749707, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259431Pages 383-389, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the practices, knowledge and opinions of French dental students (FDSs) in various domains of minimal intervention (MI) in cariology.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in spring 2018 among all fifth-year French dental students (FDSs) from the 16 French dental schools. The present article focuses on restorative management. Statistical analyses (descriptive, chi-squared) were performed.
Results: The response rate was 84.5%. Overall, 97.4% of respondents would have operatively intervened for proximal and 83% for occlusal carious lesions, respectively, while non-or micro-invasive intervention would have been possible. Interestingly, 15% would completely open the occlusal fissures. For both occlusal and proximal lesions requiring a restoration, composite resin was indicated by over 95% of the respondents. In a clinical case, 51.6% of FDSs who rightly diagnosed an enamel carious lesion would operatively intervene. When FDSs could not diagnose the type of carious lesions, a high proportion of invasive actions were also reported (40%). FDSs who read scientific articles were more likely to consider the high importance of not filling sound teeth unnecessarily (p = 0.033).
Conclusion: FDSs do not have sufficient awareness of MI guidelines regarding occlusal and proximal restorative thresholds. Efforts are required in dental schools to teach FDSs to postpone invasive/restorative strategies to later stages of carious progression. There is a need to strengthen prevention techniques and non-invasive options in the teaching of MI in cariology.
Keywords: carious lesions, dental education, dental students, minimal intervention, restorative threshold
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1749751, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259432Pages 391-397, Language: English
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-rated oral health (SROH) among adults in a national population-based survey in Sudan.
Materials and Methods: Nationally representative data were analysed from the cross-sectional 2016 Sudan STEPS survey. In all, 7722 18- to 69-year-old individuals (median age 31 years) were assessed with questions on SROH, physical measurements, and medical conditions.
Results: The prevalence of poor SROH was 8.0%, with 12.4% among females and 4.4% among males. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ages 50-69 years, higher household income, urban residence, pain in the teeth/mouth, impaired Oral Health Related Quality of Life, dental visit, having overweight or obesity and elevated total cholesterol were positively associated with poor SROH, and male sex, primary or less education and having 20 or more natural teeth were negatively associated with poor SROH. In addition, in the unadjusted analysis, having dentures, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, or heart attack were positively associated with SROH, and engaging in moderate or high physical activity were negatively associated with poor SROH.
Conclusions: Almost one in ten participants reported poor SROH. Several factors associated with poor SROH were found that can aid in designing programmes to improve SROH in Sudan.
Keywords: adults, health variables, oral conditions, self-rated oral health, Sudan
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1757253, PubMed ID (PMID): 34264046Pages 399-404, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effect of cancer treatment on the worsening of dental caries and periodontal disease.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-three adult cancer patients who underwent panoramic radiography before cancer treatment and 1–2 years later were enrolled in this study. They received professional oral care, including oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing, professional mechanical tooth cleaning, and dental treatment or extraction of any tooth with the source of infection. Age, sex, smoking habit, probing pocket depth, alveolar bone loss, oral hygiene, number of teeth, leukocytes, haemoglobin, and albumin counts, cancer treatment, the administration of immunosuppressants, worsening of dental caries, and alveolar bone loss after 1–2 years were examined. Factors related to the worsening of dental caries and alveolar bone loss were analysed using logistic regression analysis.
Results: Dental caries and periodontal disease worsened in 20.8% of the patients. Smoking habit and chemotherapy were independent risk factors for the worsening of dental caries, while alveolar bone loss greater than 1/3 and chemotherapy were independent risk factors related to worsening periodontal disease.
Conclusion: Anticancer drug treatment is an exacerbating factor for dental caries and periodontal disease.
Keywords: chemotherapy, periodontal disease, perioperative oral management, radiotherapy, risk factor
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1749761, PubMed ID (PMID): 34259433Pages 405-409, Language: English
Purpose: Tongue coating is one of the primary causes of halitosis and some diseases such as aspiration pneumonia. However, to date, an effective method for reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating has not been established. We conducted a randomised-controlled study to compare the efficacy of three types of disinfectants approved for oral use in Japan in reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to the following four groups according to the solution used: 1. benzethonium chloride; 2. povidone iodine; 3. hydrogen peroxide; 4. tap water (control group). Tongue cleaning with the three test disinfectants and water was performed using a toothbrush, and the bacterial count on the tongue dorsum before and after tongue cleaning was measured using the Rapid Oral Bacteria Quantification System.
Results: The bacterial count decreased statistically significantly after tongue brushing using povidone iodine and hydrogen peroxide solutions (both p = 0.012), but not after brushing using 0.2% benzethonium chloride and tap water.
Conclusion: Tongue brushing with povidone iodine or hydrogen peroxide was the most effective method for reducing the bacterial count of tongue coating.
Keywords: benzethonium chloride, disinfection, hydrogen peroxide, povidone iodine, tongue coating
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1870377, PubMed ID (PMID): 34505495Pages 411-423, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effects of COVID-19 fear on oral health status.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1227 participants were enrolled in the study. The online survey link was circulated and responses were received. The questionnaire comprised a total of 24 closed-ended questions, which were divided into three sections. The first section focused on demographic information, the second section on the fear of COVID-19, and the third section focused on oral hygiene habits, dental complaints, and tendency to go to the dentist during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Results: Participants who had a higher fear score compared to other respective populations during the corona virus pandemic started brushing more regularly, started to use oral care products more regularly (p = 0.001), increased sugary food consumption (p = 0.001), increased meat consumption (p = 0.017), increased vegetable consumption (p = 0.019), had increased tooth hypersensitivity, had increased toothache, had increased swelling/abscess on face due to tooth decay (p = 0.001), had increased restoration failures, had increased problems with prostheses (p = 0.007), had increased bleeding and pain in the periodontal tissue, had increased oral malodor, had increased bruxism (p = 0.001), had a dental problem but hesitated to visit a dentist, and thought that dental clinics are at risk of COVID-19 contamination (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 was higher in participants who started to pay more attention to their oral hygiene habits, had a change in food consumption frequency and rate, had an increase in oral and dental health complaints, and had dental problems but hesitated to visit a dentist.
Keywords: Coronavirus, dental diseases, fear, habits, oral health
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1993907, PubMed ID (PMID): 34505496Pages 425-431, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the impact of participation in a group oral health education course on oral hygiene in Romanian military students compared to a non-participant control group.
Materials and Methods: A sample of 318 participants was enrolled from 805 recruited students. Baseline and 6-month post-intervention Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) scores were compared between an oral health education intervention (OHE) group (N = 159) and a control group (N = 159) using Student’s t-test. All participants received individualised instruction; only those in the OHE group participated in interactive group oral-health training.
Results: Post-intervention OHI-S scores improved statistically significantly (p< 0.05) in both groups compared to baseline scores. The OHE group’s post-intervention OHI-S scores were statistically significantly better (p< 0.05) than the control group’s intervention scores. Women had better OHI-S scores than men at both time points.
Conclusions: An interactive educational module produced favorable oral health results. It would be appropriate to provide an oral health course to military students aimed at supporting the maintenance of good oral health.
Keywords: dental hygiene counseling, oral health, patient education, Simplified Oral Health Index, young adults
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1993933, PubMed ID (PMID): 34505497Pages 433-440, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the possibility of reducing the erosive potential of salad dressings by adding yoghurt.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred enamel samples from bovine teeth were allocated to 20 groups (n = 10). Three modified commercially available balsamic dressings (addition of 10%, 20%, 50% yoghurt or 8.8 mM calcium chloride) and two homemade salad dressings with and without modifications were tested. Enamel samples were eroded for 2 min, rinsed for 30 s with tap water and finally abraded (20 brushing strokes with toothpaste slurry). After 40 of these cycles of erosion/abrasion, the dental hard tissue loss was determined by contact profilometry.
Results: For commercially available salad dressings, modification yielded a statistically significant decrease in enamel wear. The exception was Anna’s Best Dressing Balsamico modified with 8.8 mM calcium chloride, for which no reduction was found compared with the unmodified dressing. For all homemade dressings, a significant reduction was observed when modified with 20% yoghurt. However, when only 10% yoghurt was added to the homemade dressings, an increase of the erosive potential was observed compared to the unmodified dressing.
Conclusions: The study shows that increasing the calcium concentration only with calcium chloride in commercially available salad dressings did not show predictable outcomes to reduce erosion. However, mixing 20% plain yoghurt into the dressings reduced the erosive potential statistically significantly.
Keywords: erosion, modifications, plain yoghurt, salad dressings, tooth wear
Open Access Online OnlyReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1993965, PubMed ID (PMID): 34505498Pages 441-448, Language: English
Purpose: During the past 20 years, a plethora of research reports has been published showing a statistical association between poor oral health and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this narrative review was to focus on associations between oral infections and non-atherosclerosis-related systemic diseases.
Materials and Methods: An open literature search and evaluation of articles were conducted on Medline and Cochrane databases with the key words ‘oral infection’, ‘periodontitis’, ‘pneumonia’, ‘osteoarthritis’, ‘rheumatic diseases’, ‘inflammatory bowel disease’, ‘kidney disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘metabolic syndrome’, ‘diabetes’, ‘cancer’, ‘Alzheimer’s disease’. Cardiovascular diseases were excluded from the analysis.
Results: The scarcity of controlled studies did not allow conducting a systematic review with meta-analysis on the topics, but dental infections have been shown be associated with several general diseases also beyond the atherosclerosis paradigm. However, there is no causal evidence of the role of dental infections in this regard. Poor oral health has nevertheless often been observed to be associated with worsening of the diseases and may also affect treatments.
Conclusions: Maintaining good oral health is imperative regarding many diseases, and its importance in the daily life of any patient group cannot be over emphasised.
Keywords: oral infection, periodontitis, systemic health
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b1993989, PubMed ID (PMID): 34505499Pages 449-456, Language: English
Purpose: Dental symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients include a majority of painful temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscle findings, restricted mouth opening, and pronounced attritions. Traumatic occlusal force resulting in injury of the teeth and/or the periodontal attachment apparatus may exceed the adaptive capacity of the individual person or site. This observational cross-sectional study in soldiers with PTSD and a non-PTSD control group after military deployments aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between bruxism and periodontal diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-six in-patients and 27 out-patients (21 women, 102 men) with specialist-confirmed PTSD and bruxism after up to 17 foreign assignments, and 36 male non-PTSD controls with up to 15 foreign assignments underwent general dental, functional, and periodontal examinations.
Results: All three groups showed no statistically significant differences in terms of age (34.8 ± 8.6 years), number of teeth (n: 26.3 ± 3.4), status of dentition (DMFT 9.7 ± 6.6), incidence of periodontitis (36%) and recessions (n: 5.8 ± 5.7). From the control group to the out-patient group to the in-patient group, the proportion of smokers and tobacco use increased statistically significantly, as did the extent of attrition. In the in-patient group, with statistically significantly lower educational levels, the number of perceived prophylaxis sessions was statistically significantly reduced in the last two years.
Conclusions: Taking into account the retrospective recording of the last traumatic event, the average time of five years until therapy does not seem to have any consequences for the frequency and severity of inflammatory periodontal disease, recession, and wedge-shaped defects in soldiers with bruxism in PTSD, regardless of the need for in-patient or out-patient treatment.
Keywords: attrition, bruxism, periodontitis, PTSD, tobacco
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2048359, PubMed ID (PMID): 34546013Pages 457-464, Language: English
Purpose: Social media is today a comprehensive source of data that can serve as a guide to professionals in issues related to public health. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the content of topical fluoride-related Twitter posts made over a 3-year period in order to improve our understanding of Twitter users’ perceptions and treatment experiences.
Materials and Methods: A continuous cross-sectional sample of Tweets on the subject of ‘approaches to the topical fluoride treatment of tooth decay’ was collected from the Twitter social networking platform between 1 January 2017 and 1 January 2020 using a software application developed for this research that makes use of the Twitter advanced search API. The words and phrases used for the identification of related Tweets were determined through a screening of the topical fluoride keywords of previous studies, and a search was conducted in the English language. To better arrange the collected Tweets and to make the data more meaningful, firstly one of the natural language process techniques – Tokenization – was applied, after which the Tweets were converted into a set of meaningful words and regular expressions. The Tweets were then compared with each other, word-by-word, with the help of a word-based Levenshtein distance algorithm, after which two experts in the computational social science domain labelled each Tweet.
Results: A total of 132,358 Tweeter posts referencing topical fluoride applications were collected, of which 110,847 were eliminated through the use of a word-based Levenshtein distance algorithm, and the remaining corpus of 21,511 posts was analysed and evaluated for specific content. Within the garnered data, 48.5% (n = 10,428) of the Tweeter posts concerned topical fluoride treatments, and 7% (n = 1,507) reported experiences with topical fluoride treatment. Negative Tweeter posts about topical fluoride treatment (5,679, 26.4%) vastly outnumbered those that were positive (3,897, 18.1%).
Conclusion: The current study achieved its main objectives of analysing topical fluoride application-related posts made on social media. From the garnered Twitter data, it can be understood that Twitter users regularly share their concerns and negative sentiments about the side effects of topical fluoride treatments on the platform. Future explorations of social media may aid public health and dental professionals in the development of strategies to educate the public and to raise awareness of the importance of topical fluoride applications.
Keywords: dental caries, topical fluoride, public health, social media, Twitter, natural language processing technique
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2081389, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585871Pages 465-469, Language: English
Purpose: Teledentistry uses computer-based technology to render remote healthcare-related therapy and/or consultation. The purpose of this study was to review the contributions and concerns about the use of teledentistry in clinical orthodontics.
Materials and Methods: The focused question was “What are the benefits and limitations of the use of teledentistry in clinical orthodontics?” PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, Google-Scholar and ISI Web of knowledge databases were searched up to and including February 2021 using the following key words: 1. teledentistry; 2. teleorthodontics; 3. ethics; 4. orthodontics; 5. scope. The inclusion criteria were: (a) clinical studies; (b) case reports; and (c) case series. Studies on animal models, in vitro and/or ex vivo studies, letters, commentaries, and narrative and systematic reviews were not included in the search. The design of the study was tailored to recapitulate the relevant information.
Results: Four clinical studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were processed for data extraction. All studies had been performed after obtaining informed consent from the participants. Three studies reported that teledentistry was useful in clinical orthodontics. In one study, a clear conclusion could not be drawn regarding the benefits of teledentistry in clinical orthodontics. Two out of the four studies did not obtain prior approval from an institutional review board or ethics committee. Three studies did not report any measures that were undertaken to safeguard the electronic transfer of patient-related health information.
Conclusions: Teledentistry is a useful tool for initial patient assessments; however, it is not a reliable alternative for in-office clinical orthodontic practice.
Keywords: benefits, clinical, COVID, limitations, orthodontics, teledentistry, telemedicine
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2081469, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585872Pages 471-480, Language: English
Purpose: Incomplete polymerisation processes produce several leachable substances. The aim of this work was to review, through existing research and published literature, the genotoxic effect of residual monomers of polymers used in restorative dentistry.
Materials and Methods: The selection of published studies was performed on six databases from January 2000 to June 2020. The keywords used were: ‘genotoxicity’ or ‘DNA damage’ and ‘dental resin’ or ‘methacrylates’ or ‘residual monomers’. The selection was carried out according to the parameters and guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Metanalyses (PRISMA) and was based on patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO). The inclusion criteria were: in vitro and in vivo studies published in English that evaluated genotoxicity for residual monomers leached from polymers related to restorative dentistry. Case reports and review articles were excluded.
Results: Twenty-seven studies met the eligibility criteria. Two categories were constructed based on the experimental design, in vivo and in vitro reports. For the in vitro research, two main methods of assessing DNA damage were reported in selected studies: micronucleus (MN) counting and alkaline comet assay. For in vivo reports, the main method for assessing genotoxic damage was MN counting.
Conclusion: From the electronic search, structured data extraction, and analysis by different independent reviewers, results from the present systematic review allow us to conclude that DNA damage is induced by monomers/co-monomers (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) that are used in restorative dentistry. This systematic review highlights the need for more research on the use of monomers/co-monomers to properly assess clinical biocompatibility.
Keywords: dental resin, genotoxicity, methacrylates, residual monomers
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082019, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585873Pages 481-488, Language: English
Purpose: The authors hypothesise that whole saliva soluble-urokinase-type plasminogen-activator receptor (suPAR) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels are higher in patients with poorly-controlled than well-controlled type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-diabetic controls. The aim was to assess the periodontal clinicoradiographic status and whole-salivary suPAR and TNF-α levels in type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Materials and Methods: Patients with and without type-2 DM were included. In all patients, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Participants were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: patients with poorly controlled type-2 DM; group 2: patients with well-controlled type-2 DM; group 3: non-diabetic patients with periodontitis; group 4: non-diabetic patients without periodontitis. Clinicoradiographic periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], clinical attachment loss [AL], probing depth [PD] and mesial and distal marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. The whole saliva total protein concentration (TPC) and suPAR as well as TNF-α levels were measured. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.01.
Results: One hundred patients (25 patients per group) were included. Scores of PI (p < 0.01), GI (p < 0.01), clinical AL (p < 0.01), PD (p < 0.01), number of missing teeth and mesial (p < 0.01) and distal (p < 0.01) MBL were statistically significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2–4. Scores of PI, GI, clinical AL, PD, mesial and distal MBL, and numbers of missing teeth were higher in group 3 (p < 0.01) than in groups 2 and 4. The whole saliva TPC, suPAR and TNF-α levels were statistically significantly higher among patients in group 1 (p < 0.01) than in groups 2–4.
Conclusion: Patients with poorly-controlled type-2 DM presented with poorer clinicoradiographic periodontal status and increased whole saliva levels of suPAR, TNF-α and TPC compared with patients with well-controlled type-2 DM and non-diabetic individuals.
Keywords: periodontitis, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, type-2 diabetes mellitus, unstimulated whole saliva
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082037, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585874Pages 489-494, Language: English
Purpose: To clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of indocyanine green mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and aloe vera (AV) gel when used as adjunct therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP) for treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: group 1 (SRP), group 2 (SRP+PDT) and group 3 (SRP+AV). Four clinical parameters – plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), periodontal (PD) pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL) – were evaluated at baseline and 3 and 6 months post treatment. Additionally, the amount of three inflammatory – cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α – in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was identified using an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA).
Result: Statistically significant improvement was observed for all clinical parameters in group 3 at follow-up in comparison to groups 1 and 2. Individuals treated with adjunct PDT showed statistically significant reduction in moderate (4-5 mm) and deep (≥6 mm) PD pockets at the 3-month follow-up. Group-2 and -3 patients displayed statistically significant reductions in cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α at the 3-month follow-up in comparison to group 1 patients. This reduction in cytokines was maintained at the 6-month follow-up.
Conclusion: Adjunct treatment regimens PDT and AV gel statistically significantly contributed to decreasing inflammation in periodontal tissue. AV /gel showed potential to decrease BoP, whereas PDT can facilitate increasing the clinical attachment level.
Keywords: aloe vera, chronic periodontitis, photodynamic therapy, scaling and root planing
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082063, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585875Pages 495-502, Language: English
Purpose: Accumulating evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an up to 300% increase in early implant failure. The aim of this study was to investigate a comprehensive pre-surgical dental support program (DentaMedica) on its ability to increase vitamin D and antioxidant levels prior to implant surgery.
Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were enrolled in this study. To quantify vitamin D levels, two in-office vitamin D finger-prick tests (10–15 min in length) were compared to levels obtained from a standard laboratory blood test. An antioxidant testing device was also utilised to investigate the impact of this pre-surgical supplementation program on antioxidant scores 0 and 6 weeks post supplementation.
Results: It was first found that 65% of the population had an initial vitamin D deficiency (below 30 ug/ml). After supplementation, vitamin D levels increased from an average of 24.76 ng/ml to 50.11 ng/ml (ranging from 38 to 85.50 ng/ml). No statsitcally significant differences were observed between any of the 3 testing devices (2 in-office finger-prick tests and a standard blood sample). Initial antioxidant levels registered on the biophotonic unit averaged an antioxidant score of 27250 ± 10992.22. Following supplementation, an increase of 54% from baseline values (41950 ± 9276.31) was reported.
Conclusion: The results from this study show convincingly that the majority of the tested population was vitamin D deficient. It was further found that both in-office finger-prick devices demonstrated results comparable to standard lab scores (usually within an average 2–3 ng/ml). Following supplementation, all patients reached sufficient levels following this 4–6 week pre-surgical supplementation program specific to implant dentistry.
Keywords: DentaMedica, early implant failure, implant integration, osseointegration, vitamin D deficiency
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082081, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585876Pages 503-510, Language: English
Purpose: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) are inflammatory biomarkers, whereas galectin-1 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The relationship between suPAR, galactin-1 and IL-1β levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) in relation to dental implants remains unaddressed. The aim was to assess suPAR, galectin-1, and IL-1β levels in PISF under peri-implant inflammatory conditions.
Materials and Methods: Demographic data and information related to jaw location and duration of implants in function as well as systemic health was retrieved from patients’ dental records. Peri-implant plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI, respectively), probing depth (PD) and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded. The PISF was collected and levels of suPAR, galectin-1 and IL-1β were determined using standard techniques. Sample-size estimation and statistical analyses were done. Correlation of suPAR and galectin-1 with IL-1β were assessed via logistic regression. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: Seventy-two patients (45 males and 27 females) with peri-implant diseases were included. Thirty-six patients (22 males and 14 females) had peri-implant mucositis; 36 (23 males and 13 females) had healthy peri-implant tissues. The PISF volume was statistically significantly higher among patients with (0.52 ± 0.05 µl) than without peri-implant diseases (0.06 ± 0.01 µl) (p < 0.001). The PISF levels of suPAR (p < 0.01), galectin-1 (p < 0.01) and IL-1β (p < 0.01) were statistically significantly higher among patients with than without peri-implant diseases. In patients with peri-implant mucositis, PISF suPAR (p < 0.001) and galectin-1 (p < 0.001) levels correlated with PISF IL-1β levels. In patients with peri-implant mucositis, increasing peri-implant PD and IL-1β levels directly correlated with increased PISF suPAR (p < 0.001) and galectin-1 (p < 0.05) levels.
Conclusion: Increased PISF levels of suPAR, galectin and IL-1β suggest that these proteins possibly contribute towards the pathogenesis of peri-implant inflammation, and are potential biomarkers of peri-implant diseases.
Keywords: interleukin-1β galectin-1, peri-implant diseases, peri-implant mucositis, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082123, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585877Pages 511-516, Language: English
Purpose: It is hypothesised the peri-implant soft-tissue inflammatory parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and probing depth [PD]) are poorer and crestal bone loss (CBL) higher around dental implants placed in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)-users than controls (individuals that had never consumed any form of tobacco). The aim of this study was to assess the peri-implant clinicoradiographic parameters among non-smokers and individuals using ENDS at 8 years of follow-up.
Materials and Methods: Self-reported non-smokers and individuals habitually using ENDS were included. A questionnaire was used to gather information about age in years, sex (female or male), daily frequency and duration of use of ENDS, family history of smoking and/or vaping, daily toothbrushing and flossing and most recent visit to a dentist or dental hygienist. These patients were evaluated for peri-implant CBL, PD, PI, BOP. The mesial and distal CBL was measured on digital bitewing radiographs that were taken using the long-cone paralleling technique. Group comparisons were statistically assessed and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (92 males and 35 females) were included. Sixty-three individuals (46 males and 17 females) had used ENDS for 9.2 ± 0.8 years (group 1) and 64 (46 males and 18 females) did not use any nicotinic products (group 2). The mean ages of individuals in groups 1 and 2 were 34.2 ± 1.3 and 35.1 ± 0.5 years, respectively. In all patients, platform-switched dental implants with moderately rough surfaces were placed at bone level using an insertion torque of 30-–35 Ncm. In both groups, implants had a diameter of 4.1 mm and the lengths ranged between 11 and 14 mm. In groups 1 and 2, implants were in function for 8.8 ± 0.4 and 8.5 ± 0.2 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mPI, mBoP, PD, and mesial and distal CBL around implants in groups 1 and 2 at 8 years of follow-up.
Conclusion: Dental implants can demonstrate stable clinicoradiographic status and can remain functionally stable in non-smokers and ENDS users, provided that strict home oral hygiene measures are adopted.
Keywords: crestal bone loss, dental implant, electronic nicotine delivery systems, inflammation, probing depth, smoking
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2082139, PubMed ID (PMID): 34585878Pages 517-522, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of the present 10-year follow-up study was to assess the survival rate of cement- and screw-retained restorations on dental implants placed in grafted sites.
Materials and Methods: Patients with cement- (group 1) and screw-retained (group 2) restorations on implants placed in grafted sites and patients with cement- (group 3) and screw-retained (group 4) restorations on implants placed in non-grafted sites were included. Demographic data was recorded using a questionnaire, and information regarding implant dimensions, surface characteristics, insertion torque, type of bone graft used, jaw location and duration of implants in function was retrieved from patients’ records. These patients were evaluated for peri-implant crestal bone loss (CBL), probing depth (PD), modified plaque index (mPI), and modified bleeding on probing (mBOP). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Eighty-eight partially edentulous individuals (n = 22 in each group) were included. The mean ages of individuals in all groups were comparable in all groups. In each patient, 1 bone-level platform-switched dental implant with moderately rough surfaces was placed using an insertion torque of 30–35 Ncm. In all groups, the length and diameter of implants ranged between 11–14 mm and 4.1–5 mm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mPI, mBoP, PD, and mesial and distal CBR around implants in any of the groups.
Conclusion: Bone-level implants restored with cement and screw-retained restorations can possess a stable clinicoradiographic status and remain functional in grafted and non-grafted sites, provided strict domestic oral hygiene measures are adopted and routine dental prophylaxis is carried out by oral healthcare providers.
Keywords: cement-retained, dental implant, inflammation, screw-retained, survival
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2182947, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673843Pages 523-528, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the dental health of orphan and non-orphan children in Fuyang City, China.
Materials and Methods: A total of 332 orphan children were selected from social child welfare institutes and 590 non-orphan children were selected from the Experimental Primary and Middle Schools through random sampling in Fuyang City, China. The indices for Decayed, Missing, Filling (DMF) in orphan and non-orphan children were determined by dental inspections to assess their dental health. The periodontal status of orphan and non-orphan children aged 12–15 years was determined using the percentages of bleeding gingiva and dental calculus.
Results: In the age range of 3 to 5 years, the percentage of caries (81%) and the mean DMF (4.41; SD: 2.06; 95% CI: 3.82 to 5.00) of orphan children were statistically significantly higher than the percentage of caries (64%) and the mean DMF of the non-orphan control cohort (3.29; SD: 2.05; 95% CI: 2.87 to 3.71; p < 0.05). In the age range of 12 to 15 years, the percentage of caries (50.8%) and the mean DMF (1.28; SD: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.43) of orphan children were statistically significantly higher than the percentage of caries (34.5%) and the mean DMF (1.11; SD: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23; p < 0.05) of non-orphan children. For orphan children ages 3 to 5 years, the percentage of restorations was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-orphan children (30%). For orphan children ages 12 to 15 years, the percentage of restorations was 3.9%, statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-orphan children (19.4%). In orphan children ages 12 to 15 years, the percentages of bleeding gingiva (76.0%) and dental calculus (69.3%) were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the non-orphan children (46.2% and 39.1%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation indicators above between different genders within the groups studied, except the percentage of restorations.
Conclusion: The dental health of orphan children in Fuyang City is worse than that of non-orphan children of the same age ranges. The values determined in this study can be used as a starting metric to measure the effectiveness of dental health care programs in improving the dental health of both orphan and non-orphan children.
Keywords: dental health, DMF, epidemiology, orphan children
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2182977, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673844Pages 529-536, Language: English
Purpose: This single-center, clinically controlled, double-blinded, randomised, crossover study aimed to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect, substantivity and patients’ acceptance of three toothpaste slurries after a single application on established biofilms observed for 24 h.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four participants started a test cycle after refraining from oral hygiene for 48 h, with a baseline plaque sample measuring biofilm vitality (in %; VF0) using vital fluorescence (VF). They were instructed to rinse for 1 min with either an amine fluoride, stannous chloride (ASC), an herbal (SBC) or a sodium fluoride (SFL) toothpaste prepared as slurries. Every two hours up to 12 and after 24 h, plaque samples were harvested (VF2-VF24%). Plaque-covered areas (PA in %) were evaluated after 24 h using digital photographs. Patients’ acceptance was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire.
Results: All participants (16 women, 8 men; 27.5 ± 7.9 years) completed all cycles. Two hours after application (VF2), all toothpastes showed a statistically significant reduction in bacterial vitality (p < 0.05), maintained up to 12 h. ASC revealed statistically significantly lower vitality values compared to SBC at VF2, VF4, VF8, VF12 and VF24, and at VF4, VF12 and VF24 compared to SFL (p < 0.05), while SBC and SFL did not differ statistically significantly at any time point. The preferred toothpastes were SFL (18/24 participants) and ASC (15/24 participants).
Conclusions: All toothpastes showed statistically significant anti-plaque effects on established plaque biofilm and a substantivity up to 24 h compared to their baseline, while ASC still presented a statistically significant effect after 12 and 24 h compared to SBC and SFL.
Keywords: anti-plaque agents, biofilm vitality, chemical plaque control, substantivity, toothpaste
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2182985, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673845Pages 537-546, Language: English
Purpose: To histologically compare the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) produced using different protocols on periodontal wound healing/regeneration in periodontal defects in dogs.
Materials and Methods: Dehiscence-type gingival recession and two-wall intrabony defects were created bilaterally in the maxillary canines and mandibular premolars, respectively, in four beagle dogs. The recession defects were randomly treated with coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone, CAF and PRF produced via fixed-angle centrifugation (F-PRF; Leukocyte and PRF (L-PRF) protocol) or CAF and PRF produced via horizontal centrifugation (H-PRF). After 2 weeks, the two-wall intrabony defects were randomly treated as follows: open flap debridement (OFD), OFD + F-PRF, OFD + H-PRF and OFD + heated albumin with PRF using bio-heat technologies (Alb-PRF). Eight weeks after the 2nd reconstructive surgery, the animals were euthanised for histological evaluation.
Results: In the PRF-applied defects, new bone and new cementum formation occurred to varying degrees regardless of the protocols used to produce PRF. Particularly in the two-wall intrabony defects, new bone formation extended from the host bone toward the coronal region of the defects in the H-PRF applied sites compared with those in the OFD, F-PRF and Alb-PRF groups, and the H-PRF group showed the greatest amount of newly formed cementum.
Conclusion: PRF induced periodontal regeneration in gingival recession and two-wall intrabony defects in dogs. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal protocol for obtaining predictable periodontal regeneration in periodontal defects in humans.
Keywords: animal experiment, intrabony defect, gingival recession defect, periodontal wound healing/regeneration, platelet-rich fibrin
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2183011, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673846Pages 547-554, Language: English
Purpose: Dental implants without proper maintenance may lead to serious consequences, such as peri-implantitis. Peri-implantitis in patients undergoing antitumour chemotherapy can negatively affect the prognosis of treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the onset of peri-implantitis and the effects of oral hygiene management in patients with dental implants undergoing antitumour chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients (n = 23) with dental implants who received oral supportive care during malignancy chemotherapy were included. They were categorised into two groups based on the presence of peri-implantitis and were analysed for oral hygiene conditions, maintenance after implant insertion, and adverse effects such as febrile neutropenia. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher’s exact test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant.
Results: The average number of implants was higher in patients with peri-implantitis; these implants generally did not receive appropriate maintenance. There were statistically significantly fewer peri-implantitis sites in patients receiving continuous implant maintenance therapy than those who did not (p < 0.05). The severity of febrile neutropenia was reduced by dental interventions.
Conclusion: Dental intervention before malignancy chemotherapy effectively prevented peri-implantitis and contributed to alleviating febrile neutropenia, even when it was initiated amidst chemotherapy. Dental intervention before chemotherapy seems essential in malignancy patients with dental implants.
Keywords: cancer, chemotherapy, febrile neutropenia, oral supportive care, peri-implantitis
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2183027, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673847Pages 555-564, Language: English
Purpose: This prospective cohort study aimed to 1) determine whether oral hygiene (OH) is a factor affecting orthodontic pain and 2) reveal whether orthodontic pain affects OH practice during orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: 35 adults aged 22–59 years with treated and stabilised periodontitis were recruited. The pre-bonding (baseline) and 1-month post-bonding OH as well as periodontal status were recorded. The experience, duration and maximum intensity of orthodontic pain within the first week after bonding were documented. In addition, the concentrations of cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were recorded at baseline, 1 day and 1 week after bonding.
Results: Patients who experienced orthodontic pain in the first week of orthodontic treatment had a higher baseline gingival index (GI) than patients who never experienced orthodontic pain (p < 0.05), and patients who experienced a longer duration and higher intensity of orthodontic pain in the first week of orthodontic treatment also had a higher baseline GI (p < 0.05). Patients who experienced orthodontic pain in the first week of orthodontic treatment had statistically significantly higher concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in GCF at 1 day post bonding than those who never experienced pain, while baseline GI was positively associated with cytokine concentrations in GCF at 1 week post bonding (p < 0.05). In addition, neither the experience of orthodontic pain nor its duration and intensity were associated with the level of post-bonding OH (p > 0.05).
Conclusions: The finding that increased gingival inflammation accounted for the longer duration and higher intensity of orthodontic pain in treated and stabilised periodontal patient shows that oral hygiene instructions and supportive periodontal care are of great importance prior to and during adjunctive orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised individuals.
Keywords: oral hygiene, orthodontic treatment, pain, treated and stabilised periodontitis
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2183059, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673848Pages 565-572, Language: English
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether treatment of gingivitis in pregnant women affects pregnancy outcomes.
Materials and Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials using PRISMA guidelines to appraise the treatment of gingivitis on pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (less than 37 weeks), low birth weight (less than 2,500 g), gestational age and birth weight. Pooled odds ratios (OR), mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. A search was conducted in databases including Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Embase without restrictions regarding language or date of publication.
Results: Three clinical trials comprising 1,031 participants were included in this review. Treatment of gingivitis during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.20–0.98], P = 0.045) and higher birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD) =105.36 g, 95% CI [36.72–174.01], P = 0.003). Gestational age at birth in the treatment group (WMD = 0.31 weeks, 95% CI [–0.02–0.64], P = 0.64) as well as likelihood of low birth weight (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.38–2.21], P = 0.851) did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that treatment of gingivitis in pregnancy may improve pregnancy outcomes including increased infants birth weight and reduced preterm births. Future trials are warranted to validate the true effect size of gingivitis treatment on pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: birth weight, gingivitis, gingivitis treatment, preterm, randomised controlled trials
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2183087, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673849Pages 573-578, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effect of energy drinks supplementation with green tea extract on the erosive dentine wear.
Materials and Methods: Six groups of bovine dentine samples (n = 15) were subjected to four cycles erosive attacks (10 min, 25 °C) and remineralisation (artificial saliva, 60 min, 37°C) using the following formulas: tap water; green tea extract; Red Bull; Red Bull supplemented with green tea extract; Red Bull Light; Red Bull Light supplemented with green tea extract. The erosive dentine wear – ie, the irreversible dentine loss – was measured using a stylus profilometer (µm, accuracy = 40 nm).
Results: Median and interquartile range (IQR) of erosive dentine wear for the tested energy drinks before and after the supplementation with green tea extract were calculated as follows: Red Bull (before: 3.3 µm (1.0)); after: 1.2 µm (0.6)); Red Bull Light (before: 3.3 µm (0.9)); after: 2.0 µm (0.4)). The difference between the groups before and after the supplementation was statistically significant (P ˂0.05). The erosive dentine wear for the tap water group was calculated at 0.4 µm (0.6) and for the green tea extract group at –1.0 µm (1.3).
Conclusions: Supplementation of energy drinks with green tea extract could reduce the erosive dentine wear caused by energy drink in vitro.
Keywords: erosive dentine wear, energy drinks, green tea, erosive potential, profilometry
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2259007, PubMed ID (PMID): 34734517Pages 579-586, Language: English
Purpose: Dental erosion and childhood obesity are associated with a common risk factor, soft drink consumption. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of dental erosion and its association with obesity among children with and without special healthcare needs.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,200 school children (400 children with special needs (CSHN) and 800 children without special needs) in the age group of 6 to 16 years. Dental erosion was diagnosed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Body mass index (BMI; weight/height in kg/m2) was recorded for each child. The association of dental erosion and obesity was analysed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: A total of 331 (27.6%) children presented with dental erosion. Dental erosion prevalence among CSHN was 33.5% and among children without special needs was 24.6%. In the final fully adjusted model, children with obesity presented 2.32 times (95%CI 1.17–4.89, P = 0.001) higher odds ratio (OR) of having dental erosion than normal-weight children. Children who consumed soft drinks ≥ 1 time/day and 2–6 times a week presented with an OR of 2.65 (95%CI 1.23–5.21, P = 0.001) times of dental erosion. Children with chronic vomiting and bulimia presented with a 3.27 (95%CI 1.72–6.12, P = 0.001) times higher OR of dental erosion. Children with gastric reflux presented with a 3.21 (95%CI 1.52 – 5.86, P = 0.001) times higher OR of dental erosion.
Conclusion: The prevalence of dental erosion was slightly higher for special needs children compared to children without special needs. The study outcome suggests that obesity, chronic vomiting, consumption of soft drinks, and gastric reflux are statistically significantly associated with dental erosion.
Keywords: dental erosion, obesity, prevalence, special needs
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2259087, PubMed ID (PMID): 34734518Pages 587-594, Language: English
Purpose: This in-situ-study investigated if rinsing the oral cavity with a calcium containing solution or a fluoride containing mouthwash immediately before an erosive attack leads to reduced enamel softening.
Materials and Methods: Bovine enamel samples (n = 240) with measured baseline surface microhardness (KHN) were assigned to five series (S1–5). Twelve participants carried out each series as follows: Four enamel samples of the associated test series were placed in an intraoral appliance and carried in each participants’ mouth. After 30 min, the participants either rinsed the oral cavity for 60 s with 30 ml of a solution prepared from a 1,000 mg calcium effervescent tablet dissolved in 100 ml water (S2), an 800 mg calcium containing mineral supplement powder (5 g) dissolved in 200 ml water (S3), a fluoride (500 ppm) mouthwash (S4), a fluoride (500 ppm) and stannous chloride (800 ppm) containing mouthwash (S5), or did not rinse with any test solution before the erosive attack (S1, negative control). The participants subsequently rinsed the oral cavity with 100 ml of a soft drink (Sprite Zero) for 60 s to simulate the erosive attack and immediately afterwards with water to stop the erosive process. As final step, surface microhardness was measured a second time and hardness loss (∆KHN) calculated. Differences of ∆KHN between the series were investigated by fitting a mixed effect model to the data set.
Results: The highest loss of microhardness and thus softening of enamel (mean of ∆KHN; lower/upper confidence level) was observed in the negative control (S1: 60.2; 67.6/52.8). While no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) compared to S1 could be found in S2 (50.0; 57.4/42.5) and S3 (54.6; 62.1/47.2), statistically significantly less softening of enamel (P < 0.001) was discovered in S5 (33.8; 41.2/26.4) and S4 (41.8.2; 49.3/34.4). S5 showed the overall lowest values for ∆KHN and thus best protection from enamel softening.
Conclusion: Rinsing with a fluoride mouthwash or a fluoride and stannous chloride containing mouthwash immediately before an erosive attack reduces the softening of enamel. None of the investigated calcium-containing solutions was able to reduce erosion induced softening of enamel.
Keywords: calcium solution, dental erosion, erosive tooth wear, erosion protection, fluoride mouthwash
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2259111, PubMed ID (PMID): 34734519Pages 595-602, Language: English
Purpose: While parents are the primary caregivers, school teachers can play a crucial role in shaping the personality and lifestyle of children during the elementary school years. The aims of this study were to evaluate the oral health knowledge of elementary school teachers and to assess their attitude towards oral health education and its implementation in the elementary school curriculum.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 1200 teachers working in government elementary schools. Data were collected through a structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of teachers’ demographic data and their responses to knowledge and attitude questions.
Results: A total of 1031 teachers participated in this study, with a response rate of 86%. About two-thirds (66%) of the participants demonstrated high oral health knowledge. Participants’ educational level was statistically significantly associated with their oral health knowledge. Almost all the participants (90%) agreed that oral health education should be included in the elementary school curriculum. More than two-thirds of the participants (74%) showed willingness to participate in online courses to promote oral health among elementary school children.
Conclusion: Considering their oral health knowledge, positive attitude, teaching experience, and the fact that they have the potential to reach a large number of children and establish consistency and continuity in providing educational instructions, elementary school teachers should be encouraged to become involved in promoting oral health to elementary school children as a part of the teaching system. Such an approach is a good strategy to improve children’s oral health and therefore reduce the burden of preventable oral diseases – dental caries and periodontal disease – worldwide.
Keywords: attitude, elementary school teachers, knowledge, oral health education
Open Access Online OnlyCariologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2259135, PubMed ID (PMID): 34734520Pages 603-608, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the influence of pretreating demineralised enamel with an infiltrant on the margin integrity of Class V like composite restorations on primary teeth bonded with different adhesives.
Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from primary molars were demineralised and circular class-V-like cavities were prepared. The cavities were treated with a universal adhesive (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M Oral Care), applied either in self-etch (SE) or etch-and-rinse mode (ER) mode. In groups SE-I and ER-I, the demineralised margins were pretreated with a caries infiltrant (Icon, DMG) prior to adhesive application. The cavities were restored with a nanofilled composite material and thermocycled. Marginal integrity was evaluated using SEM, and the percentage of continuous margin was statistically analysed.
Results: Specimens treated with the caries infiltrant followed by the adhesive showed similar marginal continuity as the adhesive alone.
Conclusions: Pretreatment of demineralised primary enamel with a caries infiltrant before applying a universal adhesive does not influence the marginal integrity of composite fillings.
Keywords: caries infiltrant, demineralised primary enamel, marginal integrity