Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3801051, PubMed ID (PMID): 36633468Pages 1-12, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with silicon hydride (SiH4) at different times on HT-zirconia surface characteristics and bonding of composite cement before and after thermocycling.
Materials and Methods: Blocks of HT zirconia were obtained, polished, sintered and divided into five groups, according to PECVD time (n = 31): Zr-30 (30 s), Zr-60 (60 s), Zr-120 (120 s) and Zr-300 (300 s). The control group (Zr-0) did not receive PECVD. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in conjunction with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), goniometry, and profilometry tests were used for chemical and topographic characterization. Monobond N silane (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to the surface, and a cylinder of composite cement (Variolink N) was made (3 x 3 mm). Half of the specimens of each group were stored for 24 h or subjected to thermocycling (6 x 103 cycles). A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed. Results were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05).
Results: For experimental groups, XPS showed that formation of Si-O bonds contributed to increased surface free energy (SFE). FE-SEM and EDS showed that the longer the deposition time, the greater the amount of silicon on the surface. Zr-60 and Zr-300 presented higher and lower surface roughnesses, respectively. The silicon penetrated the microstructure, causing higher stress concentrations. The bond strength to composite cement was improved after all PECVD deposition times.
Conclusion: The PECVD technique with SiH4, associated with chemical treatment with primer based on silane methacrylate, is a solely chemical surface treatment capable of maintaining bonding between composite cement and HT zirconia.
Keywords: dental ceramics, zirconia, silicon, aging, bond strength
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3801065, PubMed ID (PMID): 36633469Pages 13-22, Language: English
Purpose: This study compared a 2%-CHX dentin pre-treatment with three CHX adhesives (experimentally admixed 0.1% CHX in primer or bonding agent, or industrially added 0.2% CHX in universal adhesive) by evaluating dentin bond strengths after biological loading in a fully automated artificial mouth model.
Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin of 50 freshly extracted human third molars was exposed, and the teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the adhesive protocol (n = 10): 1. control, Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M Oral Care; CTRL); 2. 2% CHX dentin pre-treatment (DENT); 3. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the primer (PRIM); 4. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the bonding agent (BOND); 5. Peak Universal Bond containing 0.2% CHX (Ultradent; PEAK). The teeth were restored with composite resin. Microtensile bond strength testing (bonding area 0.46 mm2 ± 0.04 mm2, crosshead speed 1 mm/min) was performed after 24-h storage in distilled water (baseline) or after 2-day biological loading with S. mutans (demineralization 1 h / remineralization 5 h). The mode of fracture was recorded and exemplary sticks were evaluated under SEM.
Results: CTRL exhibited significantly higher μTBS at baseline in comparison to PRIM (p = 0.000), BOND (p = 0.002), and PEAK (p = 0.000). After undergoing the caries model, CTRL demonstrated significantly lower μTBS compared to DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.008), and PEAK (p = 0.000). The same behavior was observed for BOND vs DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.003), and PEAK (p = 0.001). After biological loading, DENT (p = 0.041), PRIM (p = 0.000), and BOND (p = 0.000) exhibited significantly fewer adhesive fractures than CTRL.
Conclusions: CHX addition to the primer protects dentin bond strength from declining after biological loading. Thus, it may offer some clinical advantage in terms of secondary caries inhibition around composite restorations. However, since loss of adhesion at baseline was less when 2% CHX was used as a dentin pre-treatment, it can be suggested as a safer option. so that bonding is not undermined by potential chemical interactions from CHX with the adhesives.
Keywords: biofilm, biological loading, bond durability, cariology, chlorhexidine gluconate, dentin bonding, microtensile bond strength
Open Access Online OnlySHORT COMMUNICATIONDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3831385, PubMed ID (PMID): 36689275Pages 23-29, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the bond durability of composite cement to zirconia after treatment with a 15-methacryloyloxypentadecyl dihydrogen phosphate (15-MPDP)-containing adhesive and 2 commercially available adhesives.
Materials and Methods: Ninety zirconia bars were fabricated and bonded to prepolymerized resin composite cylinders with a composite cement after surface treatment for 20 s using the following adhesives: Adper Easy One (AEO, negative control), Single Bond Universal (SBU, positive control), and 10 wt% 15-MPDP powder mixed with Adper Easy One (15- MPDP). After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were divided into 3 subgroups according to the aging treatment applied (n = 10): no aging treatment (0/TC), 10,000 thermocycles (1/TC), and 37,500 thermocycles (3/TC). Shear bond strength (SBS) was analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05), and the fracture surfaces were examined under a dental microscope.
Results: Significant differences in the SBSs among the surface treatments and aging treatments were observed (both p < 0.001). The 15-MPDP and SBU groups showed significantly higher SBSs than the AEO group, whereas similar SBSs were found in the 15-MPDP and SBU groups. Significant reductions in the SBSs were found after 37,500 thermocycles (p < 0.001), although no significant difference between specimens aged with 10,000 thermocycles and non-aged specimens was observed.
Conclusions: The 15-MPDP-containing dental adhesive exhibited bond durability comparable to that of a well-established 10-MDP-containing universal adhesive. Aging by 10,000 thermocycles may be insufficient to disrupt the bond of composite cement to zirconia.
Keywords: zirconia bonding, thermocycling, 10-MDP, 15-MPDP, shear bond strength
Open Access Online OnlyCase SeriesDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3837959, PubMed ID (PMID): 36700550Pages 31-38, Language: English
Purpose: This retrospective case series of 9 patients aimed to describe clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction following the implementation of the posterior Dahl concept to manage localized posterior tooth wear.
Materials and Methods: Localized occlusal space was created in the posterior dentition. Supra-occluding direct restorations were placed bilaterally for the restoration of molars. Intraoral scans were taken at the pre-treatment stage, immediately post-restoration, and during follow-up appointments. Scans were used to undertake analysis of any occlusal changes and re-establishment of the occlusion. A questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction, alleviation of any pre-treatment concerns, and evaluation of post-treatment complaints.
Results: Immediately post-treatment, all patients showed an increase in the vertical dimension. Opening of the bite in the untreated areas following restoration of worn posterior molars resulted either in a tendency towards or the actual reestablishment of the occlusion. One patient completely lacked compensatory vertical tooth movement in the untreated areas, culminating in the persistence of a vertical open bite. One restoration displayed cohesive fracture after 4 months. Pre-treatment problems (eg, sensitivity) were fully resolved amongst all patients after 6 months. Post-treatment complaints were minor and demonstrated resolution within a relatively short period of time. Eight patients reported being “very satisfied” with their treatment outcomes.
Conclusion: Application of the posterior Dahl concept appears to offer a promising, relatively simple, minimally invasive and effective approach for the management of localized posterior tooth wear, which is well accepted by patients.
Keywords: restorative dentistry, direct resin composite restorations, Dahl concept, vertical dimension of occlusion, bite raising, tooth wear
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3868623, PubMed ID (PMID): 36744829Pages 39-50, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of carbodiimide (EDC) and chitosan (CHI) on the enzymatic activity (EA) and bond strength (BS) of different composite cements to root dentin.
Materials and Methods: Ninety (90) maxillary canines were sectioned, standardizing the length of the roots. The roots were endodontically treated, prepared, divided into 3 groups according to dentin treatment (distilled water [DW], CHI 0.2 wt%, or EDC 0.5M), and further subdivided into 3 subgroups according to composite cement (RelyX ARC [3M Oral Care], Panavia F 2.0 [Kuraray Noritaki], or RelyX U200 [3M Oral Care]). Of the slices obtained by sectioning, the most cervical of each third were subjected to a push-out test and the most apical were subjected to in-situ zymography. Half of the slices were analyzed immediately, and the other half after 6 months. The results were analyzed with ANOVA or the chi-squared test.
Results: RelyX ARC showed higher BS associated with CHI, while RelyX U200 showed higher BS associated with EDC (p = 0.044). For Panavia F 2.0, the treatment did not influence BS (p > 0.05). For the cervical and middle thirds, no differences were observed between the cements, while the apical third revealed higher BS for RelyX U200 (p < 0.001). The highest percentage of adhesive-to-dentin failures was observed for Panavia F 2.0. EDC showed the lowest percentage of adhesive-to-dentin failures. According to zymographic analysis, DW and CHI showed greater fluorescence for RelyX ARC, while EDC exhibited the lowest fluorescence of all cements (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The different mechanisms of action of solutions for pre-treatment of intraradicular dentin yielded different results depending on the adhesive used. EDC resulted in higher bond strength and higher enzyme inhibition for RelyX U200, while the treatment with chitosan resulted in higher bond strength and lower enzymatic activity for RelyX ARC. Although EDC and chitosan treatments did not influence the bond strength for Panavia F 2.0, both resulted in higher enzyme inhibition for this composite cement.
Keywords: carbodiimide, chitosan, push-out, in-situ zymography, matrix metalloproteinases
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3868649, PubMed ID (PMID): 36744830Pages 51-62, Language: English
Purpose: To provide an overview of the in-vitro bond strength of universal adhesives to zirconia and analyze whether these adhesives are a reliable alternative to conventional zirconia primers.
Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases up to August 2021. Investigations published in English, assessing resin-mediated bond to zirconia using universal adhesives compared to phosphate/silane-based primer or phosphate-based primer were included. After study selection and data extraction, risk of bias analysis was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.4, with a random effects model, at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: In total, 23 studies were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Universal adhesives showed higher bond strengths than did phosphate-based primers (p < 0.00001) to aged zirconia without airborne alumina-particle abrasion. Similar results were observed when the zirconia surface was airborne-particle abraded at baseline and after dynamic aging (p < 0.0001). When universal adhesives and phosphate-silane based primers were compared, similar bond strengths (p ≥ 0.001) were observed after surface abrasion, regardless of storage condition.
Conclusion: The results showed that universal adhesives generate higher bond strengths when compared to conventional zirconia primers.
Keywords: adhesives, all ceramics, bond strength, prosthodontic ceramics
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3956401, PubMed ID (PMID): 36920254Pages 63-70, Language: English
Purpose: This study investigated the effect of different surface treatments and the effect of silane heat treatment with laser on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a nanoceramic composite to repaired hybrid CAD/CAM blocks.
Materials and Methods: 60 hybrid CAD/CAM specimens (Cerasmart, GC) were prepared and randomly divided into six groups according to the different surface treatments (n = 10): group ER: Er:YAG laser+silane (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent); group ER+SHT: Er:YAG laser+silane heat treatment; group B: bur+silane; group B+SHT: bur+silane heat treatment; group HF: hydrofluoric acid+silane; group HF+SHT: hydrofluoric acid+silane heat treatment. Afterwards, a universal adhesive (Universal Bond Quick, Kuraray) was applied, and nanoceramic resin composite (Zenit, President) cylinders were bonded to the Cerasmart specimens. They were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles (5–55°C) and subjected to SBS testing using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope (15X). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface topography (n = 2). The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05).
Results: Regarding the surface treatments, group ER showed significantly lower SBS than groups B and HF (p < 0.05). Regarding the presence of silane heat treatment by laser, groups ER+SHT and B+SHT showed significantly lower SBS than group HF+SHT(p < 0.05). In addition, group B+SHT showed significantly lower SBS than did group B (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Er:YAG laser treatment for repairing hybrid CAD/CAM blocks was not as effective as bur roughening or hydrofluoric acid etching. Silane heated by Er:YAG laser was incapable of significantly increasing the bond strength to repaired hybrid CAD/CAM blocks.
Keywords: shear bond strength, CAD/CAM, silane heat treatment, Er:YAG laser
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3974603, PubMed ID (PMID): 36939646Pages 71-78, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of etching mode (self-etch and etch-and-rinse) on acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) formation at the resin cement/enamel interface and enamel etching pattern, as well as the effects of thermocycling (0, 5000, and 10,000 cycles) on the enamel microshear bond strength (μSBS) mediated by dual-cure resin cements (DCRC).
Materials and Methods: Two DCRC were used in 4 groups: Panavia V5 in self-etch (V5NE) and etch-and-rinse mode (V5E); and Estecem II in self-etch (ENE) and etch-and-rinse mode (EE). For ABRZ observation, the bonded interface was subjected to a demineralizing solution. The morphological attributes of the interface and etching patterns were observed using FE-SEM. For μ-SBS, cylinders with a 0.79-mm internal diameter and 0.5-mm height were made with DCRC and tested in shear after 0, 5000, and 10,000 thermal cycles (TC) (5°C and 55°C) (n = 10).
Results: The formation of an enamel ABRZ was observed in all groups with different morphological features between self-etch and etch-and-rinse groups. A funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present using V5NE and ENE modes where enamel was dissolved, while ABRZ formation was confirmed and no funnel-shaped erosion was noticed using V5E and EE. No significant differences in μSBS were observed between resin cements. However, significantly lower µSBSs were recorded when the self-etching mode was used. Thermocycling resulted in a significant reduction in µSBS for all groups.
Conclusion: Selective enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality when dual-cure resin luting cements are used.
Keywords: dental bonding, dental cements, resin cements
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3974633, PubMed ID (PMID): 36939647Pages 79-86, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the bonding receptiveness of zirconia treated with nano-silica surface infiltration and the bond strength of composite cement after aging.
Materials and Methods: Zirconia ceramic green bodies (Ceramill zolid, Amann Girbach) with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 4 mm were divided into three groups (n = 4): group C (control: no treatment after sintering), group S (sandblasted: 50-μm alumina airborne particle abrasion after sintering) and group N (nanosintered: infiltrated with nano-silica colloid, sintered, and then etched with hydrofluoric acid). Phase transformations were examined through X-ray diffraction (XRD). Composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M Oral Care) was bonded to zirconia using the 10-MDP-containing composite cement Panavia F (Kuraray Noritake). The composite-cement/zirconia bond strength was immediately measured using the microtensile bond strength test (µTBS) as well as after three months of artificial aging in water (n = 20 microstick specimens/group). Failure mode patterns were examined using SEM.
Results: The specimens of groups C and S, as tested by XRD, exhibited almost full tetragonal phases, while a small extent of tetragonal-monoclinic phase transformation (t→m) was observed for group N. Group N achieved the highest bond strengths (41.5 ± 8.6 MPa), which was significantly higher than that measured for groups C and S (p < 0.05). There was a significant drop in µTBS after 90 days of water storage for groups C and S. SEM revealed a decrease in the percentage of cohesive failure in groups N and S after water storage.
Conclusions: Infiltrating zirconia with nano-silica is a reliable method to establish a strong and stable bond to zirconia. The combination of surface infiltration with nano-silica and application of a phosphate monomer-containing composite cement can significantly improve the composite-cement/zirconia bond strength.
Keywords: zirconia, bond strength, nano-silica, adhesion
Open Access Online OnlyClinical ResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4043039, PubMed ID (PMID): 37093568Pages 87-97, Language: English
Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical behavior of direct anterior composite restorations performed with a universal adhesive or with a three-step etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive.
Material and Methods: Patients were randomly treated with a three-step E&R adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr) or a universal adhesive (Clearfil Universal Bond Quick, Kuraray Noritake) applied in E&R mode. All restorations were performed with a nanohybrid composite (ClearFil Majesty ES-2, Kuraray Noritake) by the same experienced operator. Two calibrated examiners evaluated the restorations using a dental mirror and explorer, in accordance with modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) procedures. Clinical events were registered and classified as either failure (F), survival (SR), or success (S).
Results: 168 restorations were evaluated in 90 patients with an average follow-up period of 37.9 (± 22.9) months. A total of 132 restorations were performed on vital teeth, and 36 were performed on endodontically treated teeth (ETT). A total of 128 Class-IV and 40 Class-III restorations were performed. In 89 restorations, a three-step E&R adhesive was applied (14 Class-III and 75 Class-IV), while in 79, a universal adhesive was used (26 Class-III and 53 Class-IV, p = 0.0091). A Cox regression analysis was performed (p < 0.05) to analyze which factors were involved in the failure of the restorations, considering failure (F) as restorations that needed re-intervention at the follow-up period of 37.9 (± 22.9) months. No statistically significant differences were observed when considering parameters directly involved with the adhesives tested. Endodontically treated teeth were more prone to fractures (p = 0.0006) compared to vital teeth. Restorations made with universal adhesives failed by fracturing significantly more frequently (p = 0.0234), while restorations made on endodontically treated teeth had a significantly worse outcome (p = 0.0001). Restorations made on canines also failed significantly more frequently (HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.4–10.1, p = 0.0062).
Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, both the universal adhesive and the three-step E&R adhesive proved to be good treatment choices for direct anterior restorations after 37.9 (± 22.9) months of follow-up. Tooth vitality seems fundamental for the prognosis of a direct anterior composite restoration over time.
Keywords: anterior teeth, Class-IV, direct restoration, etch-and-rinse, universal adhesive
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4051477, PubMed ID (PMID): 37097055Pages 99-106, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the mechanical performance and enamel-crack propensity of large MOD composite-resin restorations on maxillary molars with severely undermined cusps.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted maxillary third molars (n = 12) received a standardized slot-type MOD preparation (5-mm depth by 5-mm bucco-palatal width) with severe undercuts, leaving unsupported buccal and lingual enamel cusps. A short-fiber reinforced composite resin base (SFRC, everX Flow, GC) was used for both the experimental direct approach and semi-direct CAD/CAM inlays (Cerasmart 270, GC). In the control group using a direct approach, Gradia Direct (GC) composite resin was used alone without SFRC. Optibond FL (Kerr) adhesive was used in all three groups (also for the immediate dentin sealing of inlays). Artificial masticatory forces were simulated under water using closed-loop servo-hydraulics (MTS Acumen 3). Each specimen was mounted at a 30-degree angle and positioned so that a cylindrical antagonistic cusp (actuator) contacted the internal palatal cusp slope of the restoration. Cyclic loading was applied at a frequency of 5 Hz, starting with a load of 200 N, increasing by 100 N every 2000 cycles. Samples were loaded until fracture and the number of endured cycles and failure modes of each specimen was recorded. Each sample was also evaluated for crack propensity during the experiment and for final failure mode (reparable failures above the CEJ [cementoenamel junction] vs irreparable failures below the CEJ).
Results: Shrinkage-induced cracks (>3 mm) were found in most specimens for both direct groups (66% to 83%) but not with inlays. The survival of inlays with a SFRC base was superior to that of the direct SFRC restorations and Gradia Direct (control) restorations (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and post-hoc log-rank test p < 0.000). The direct control group without SFRC exhibited not only the poorest survival but also 100% catastrophic failure (vs 42% and 17% for SFRC direct and SFRC inlays, respectively).
Conclusion: Large MOD restorations with severely undermined cusps were most favorably restored with an SFRC base and a CAD/CAM inlay, yielding the highest survival rate, more reparable failures and absence of shrinkage-induced cracks. When a low-cost restoration must be chosen, the SFRC base will significantly improve the performance and failure mode of directly layered restorations.
Keywords: short-fiber reinforced composite, composite resin, CAD/CAM, fatigue resistance, crack propensity, undermined cusps, shrinkage stress
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4051483, PubMed ID (PMID): 37097056Pages 107-116, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity and wear of eight bulk-fill materials in comparison to a compomer in Class-II cavities in primary molars after thermomechanical loading (TML).
Materials and Methods: Prepared Class-II cavities in 72 extracted primary molars were filled with eight bulk-fill materials. A compomer served as the control group. After water storage (incubator, 28 days, 37°C), samples were subjected to TML (2500 thermal cycles 5°C/55°C; 100,000 load cycles, 50 N, 1.67 Hz). Before and after TML, replicas were made which were used for both SEM analysis of marginal integrity and 3-D wear analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (p < 0.05).
Results: A significant reduction in perfect margins was observed for all groups, while marginal gap formation increased (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.02) for all groups but the compomer. Significant interindividual differences were observed between the tested materials regarding marginal integrity (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Wear analysis revealed no significant differences between groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Some of the bulk-fill materials investigated here achieved better results than the compomer and should be further evaluated clinically.
Keywords: Class-II restoration, composite, marginal analysis in SEM, polyacid modified resin, wear
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4097187, PubMed ID (PMID): 37191673Pages 117-124, Language: English
Purpose: EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) can increase dentin bonding longevity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of final irrigation of the root canal with EDC on the bond strength (BS) longevity of an epoxy resin-based root-canal sealer.
Materials and Methods: Twenty maxillary canines were sectioned and standardized for root length at 17 mm. Roots were instrumented and distributed into 2 groups according to the final irrigation protocol: EDTA 17%+NaOCl 2.5% (C) and EDTA 17%+NaOCl 2.5%+EDC 0.5M (EDC). The canals were dried and filled with AH Plus (Dentsply Sirona). Three slices were obtained per third, and the first slice from each third was used for the immediate push-out test (i) followed by analysis of the failure pattern (n = 10); the second slice from each third was used for the push-out test after 6-month aging (A) followed by analysis of the failure pattern (n = 10); the third slice from each third was used to examine the adhesive interface under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) (n = 10). Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Fisher’s exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Results: Higher BSs were found for EDC-A (5.6 ± 1.9) than for EDC-I (3.3 ± 0.7), C-i (2.5 ± 1.0) and C-i (2.6 ± 1.0) (p = 0.0001), while C-A values were in some cases similar to C-i and in others similar to EDC-i. No statistically significant difference was observed between the thirds (p > 0.05), except for EDC-i, which showed lower BS for the cervical (2.79 ± 0.46) compared to the apical third (3.8 ± 0.5), while the middle third in some cases had values similar to those of the apical and in others to the cervical third (3.2 ± 0.7) (p = 0.032). More mixed adhesive failures were found in the cervical third, and more adhesive failures to the sealer occurred in the middle and apical thirds (p = 0.014). A significant difference was observed between treatments in terms of adaptation of the adhesive interface, with a higher percentage of good adaptation using EDC (66.7%) than using C (40%), and a lower percentage of poor adaptation with EDC (10%) compared to C (20%) (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Root canal irrigation with EDC increased the longevity of the adhesive interface of an epoxy resin-based root-canal sealer.
Keywords: carbodiimide, EDTA, dentin, root canal filling
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4145161, PubMed ID (PMID): 37288593Pages 152-132, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effects of different surface treatments and thermocycling on shear bond strength (SBS) be-tween resin cement and zirconia-reinforced lithium-silicate (ZLS) ceramic.
Materials and Methods: 96 ZLS ceramic specimens were randomly allocated to four different surface treatment groups: etch and silane (ES), etch and universal primer (EUP), self-etching primer (SEP), and sandblasting and silane (SS). Stan-dardized composite cylinders were bonded to surface-treated ZLS ceramic, after which SBS was obtained either after 24-h water storage only or with an additional 5000 thermal cycles (TC), resulting in eight subgroups (n = 12). After evaluation of failure mode under a stereomicroscope, representative SEM images were acquired. To examine areal average surface roughness (Sa), additional ZLS specimens were prepared and randomly allocated to 3 groups: hydrofluoric acid etching, self-etching primer, and sandblasting (n = 10). Supplementary specimens were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) (n = 2) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (n = 2) to investigate their surface topographies.
Results: ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference in SBS following different surface treatment protocols after 24-h water storage (p < 0.001). However, TC groups revealed no statistically significant difference in their SBS (p = 0.394). All surface treated groups were significantly affected by TC (p < 0.001), except for the SS group (p = 0.48). Sa was signifi-cantly influenced by the different surface treatment protocols (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The ability of self-etching primer to achieve comparable bond strength with a less technique-sensitive ap-proach makes it a favorable alternative to ES for the surface treatment of ZLS ceramics.
Keywords: zirconia-reinforced lithium-silicate, acid etching, self-etching primer, universal primer, sandblasting, bond strength
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4186751, PubMed ID (PMID): 37387551Pages 133-146, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the 3-year clinical performance of a universal adhesive (Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CUBQ); Kuraray Noritake) when restoring non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two different application modes (etch-and-rinse vs self-etch with prior selective enamel etching).
Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients participated in this study. A total of 251 NCCLs (n = 251) were assigned to two groups: 1) CUBQ applied in etch-and-rinse mode (n = 122; CUBQ-ER) and 2) CUBQ applied in self-etch mode with prior selective etching of enamel with phosphoric acid (n = 129; CUPQ-SEE). The same resin composite, Clearfil Majesty ES-2 (Kuraray Noritake), was used for all restorations. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, 1 and 3 years using FDI criteria: marginal staining, fracture and retention, marginal adaptation, post-operative sensitivity and recurrence of caries. Statistical analysis was performed using a logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations (2-way GEE model).
Results: The patient recall rate at 3 years was 90%. After 3 years, both groups presented an increase in the percentage of small but still clinically acceptable marginal defects (CUBQ-ER: 67%, CUBQ-SEE: 63.2%) and marginal staining (CUBQ-ER: 32.6%, CUBQ-SEE: 31.7%). The overall success rate was 82.6% and 83.8% for CUBQ-ER and CUBQ-SEE, respectively. In total, 38 restorations (19 CUBQ-ER, 19 CUBQ-SEE) failed because of loss of retention, fracture, severe marginal defect and/or marginal discoloration. A retention rate of 87.2% and 86.3% was recorded for CUBQ-ER and CUBQ-SEE, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two bonding-mode groups for any of the evaluated parameters.
Conclusion: After 3 years of clinical service, Clearfil Universal Bond Quick performed similarly in etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes with prior selective enamel etching.
Keywords: randomized clinical trial, universal adhesive, application modes, non-carious cervical lesions, clinical effectiveness, bonding
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4208859, PubMed ID (PMID): 37435814Pages 147-158, Language: English
Purpose: This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the 14-year clinical performance of a HEMA-free 1-step self-etch adhesive (1SEa) compared with that of a 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (3E&Ra).
Materials and Methods: 267 non-carious cervical lesions in 52 patients were restored with the microhybrid composite Gradia Direct (GC), bonded in random order either with the HEMA-free 1SEa G-Bond (GB; GC) or the 3E&Ra Optibond FL (OFL; Kerr), which is considered the gold-standard E&Ra (control). The restorations were followed over 14 years for retention, marginal adaptation and discoloration, and caries occurrence. Statistical analysis involved a logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations (2-way GEE model).
Results: The patient recall rate at 14 years was 63%. In total, 79 restorations (39 GB, 40 OFL) failed because of retention loss (GB: 19.4%, OFL: 19.6%), severe marginal defects, discoloration and/or caries (GB: 21.7%; OFL: 22.5%). The overall clinical success rate was 58.9% and 57.9% for GB and OFL, respectively. The number of restorations with an unacceptable marginal defect (GB: 14.5%; OFL: 19.2%) and deep marginal discoloration (GB: 18.2%; OFL: 13.2%) increased during the last 5 years. No significant difference in overall clinical performance was recorded between the two adhesives (p > 0.05). Changes in the medical health of some patients and recurrence of abrasion/erosion/abfraction increased the failure rate and retention rate.
Conclusion: After 14 years, restorations bonded with the HEMA-free 1SEa performed as well as those bonded with the 3E&Ra gold standard. Unacceptable marginal deterioration was the main reason for failure, followed by loss of retention.
Keywords: randomized clinical trial, RCT, Class V, bonding, adhesion, clinical effectiveness, NCCL, non-carious cervical le-sions, composite restoration
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4279775, PubMed ID (PMID): 37551926Pages 159-166, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the bond strength between alternative or conventional luting agents and indirect restorative materials.
Materials and Methods: Blocks of a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN, Vita Enamic) and a feldspathic ceramic (FEL, Vita Mark II) were sliced and divided according to the luting agent: resin cement (PICN-RC, FEL-RC), flowable composite (PICN-FC, FEL-FC), or preheated composite (PICN-PH, FEL-PH). The ceramic surfaces were polished, etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s, and then a silane layer was applied. Cylinders of the luting agents were built up on the ceramic surfaces. In half the samples, the microshear bond strength (µSBS) was tested after 24 h (baseline). The other half was tested after 5000 thermocycles (5ºC–55ºC) (aging). The failure modes were determined using a stereomicroscope, and the ceramic surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA.
Results: Thermocycling reduced the bond strength values of all experimental groups. Regarding FEL, the preheated composite obtained the highest results. Resin cement showed results similar to the flowable composite at baseline and after aging. The highest results of PICN were obtained from the preheated composite followed by resin cement and flowable composite. Significant differences among the three luting agents were observed before and after aging. The most frequent failures among the experimental groups were adhesive and cohesive in the ceramic.
Conclusion: Bond strength results indicate that the preheated composite can be an alternative for adhesive cementation when applied on the tested feldspathic ceramic or PICN.
Keywords: bond strength, dental ceramics, adhesion
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4368821, PubMed ID (PMID): 37724938Pages 167-176, Language: English
Purpose: To determine the polymerization kinetics and color stability of a self-adhesive and conventional resin composite after accelerated shelf-life simulation.
Materials and Methods: Two composites were tested – universal Filtek Z250 (3M Oral Care) and self-adhesive Constic (DMG). They were stored for 2 months in an incubator to simulate an Arrhenius aging model (60ºC) and tested at 5 different time points. Polymerization kinetics (n = 3) were studied using an attenuated total reflectance technique (ATR), through continuous FTIR spectral acquisition (20 min). Spectra were obtained before, during and after 20 s of light curing. With the spectral data, qualitative analysis was performed yielding chemical stability, and quantitative data including extrapolated degree of conversion (DCmax) and polymerization rate (Rpmax) were assessed. To evaluate color stability (n = 3), a spectrophotometer was used to record CIELAB color parameters. Inferential statistics, including repeated measures two-way ANOVA were carried out at a significance level of 5%.
Results: The composites did not appear to undergo significant chemical changes after 2 months of accelerated aging. There was a significant impact of aging on the mean DCmax (p < 0.001). Similarly, a reduction in Rpmax, measured for both composites, was also noted (ANOVA; Z = 203.7; p < 0.001). The two-way ANOVA confirmed that the composite had no influence on the color stability (F = 0.94; p = 0.34), while aging did (p = 0.013).
Conclusion: Minimal changes in absorbance levels were noted for both composites, without overly affecting their chemical composition. The presence of an acidic monomer did not seem to potentiate the degradation of the self-adhesive composite. This composite even showed greater color stability after aging.
Keywords: color stability, resin composite, polymerization, self-adhesive composite, shelf-life
Open Access Online OnlyRandomised Controlled Clinical TrialDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4478817, PubMed ID (PMID): 37800873Pages 177-186, Language: English
Purpose: This follow-up of a randomized clinical split-mouth study aimed to investigate the influence of selective enamel etching on the long-term clinical performance of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) luted with a self-adhesive resin cement.
Materials and Methods: 43 patients received two PCCs (Vita Mark II; Cerec 3D) each for the restoration of extensive lesions with multiple cusp coverage, inserted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, RXU). Using a split-mouth design, one PCC received additional selective enamel etching (RXU+E) and one did not (RXU-E). Patients were clinically evaluated at baseline and after up to 15 years (median observation period 176 months) using modified USPHS and FDI criteria. The data were analyzed non-parametrically (chi-squared tests, α = 0.05). Clinical survival of all restorations after 15 years was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Results: After 15 years, 19 patients were available for clinical assessment (recall rate: 56%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a cumulative survival of 78.1% for RXU+E and of 42.9% for RXU-E, indicating a significantly higher survival rate for RXU+E (p = 0.004). Regarding the clinical performance of PCCs available for the 15-year evaluation, no statistically significant differences were found between RXU+E and RXU-E using modified USPHS and FDI criteria. Both groups revealed significant deterioration over time regarding surface luster, marginal adaptation, and marginal discoloration. RXU+E resulted in significantly inferior anatomic form over time and a significant improvement in post-operative hypersensitivity compared to baseline.
Conclusion: For posterior PCCs, selective enamel etching can be recommended based on higher survival rates after 15 years. Clinically, deterioration due to aging is similar in both groups.
Keywords: partial ceramic crown, self-adhesive, enamel etching, long-term
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4515497, PubMed ID (PMID): 37843501Pages 187-194, Language: English
Purpose: Resin composites are commonly used in pediatric dentistry, but there is limited evidence on adhesion to primary teeth, especially primary enamel. In this study, three bonding strategies were assessed – one-step self-etch (1-SE), two-step self-etch (2-SE), and three-step etch-and-rinse (3-ER) – by measuring the immediate and aged microshear bond strength (µSBS) to sound primary enamel.
Materials and Methods: 120 extracted human primary molars with sound buccal surfaces were used for µSBS testing. Six adhesive protocols (two per bonding strategy) were selected and µSBS was measured either after 24 h or 10,000 thermal cycles (n = 10). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine failure modes. Furthermore, 18 primary molars were etched using the different adhesive protocols (n = 3) for the measurement of surface roughness (Sa) using CLSM and morphological analysis using SEM.
Results: After 24 h, there was no significant difference in µSBS between 1-SE and 2-SE strategies (p = 0.96), but the 2-SE strategy yielded significantly higher µSBS after thermocycling (p < 0.001). The highest µSBS was obtained using the 3-ER strategy regardless of aging (p < 0.001). The 3-ER strategy clearly exposed enamel prisms and resulted in the highest Sa (p < 0.001). In contrast, if SE strategies were used, enamel prisms were barely recognizable, and Sa was not significantly different from baseline (p > 0.95).
Conclusion: The 3-ER strategy is optimal for bonding to primary enamel. The etching effect of SE strategies is weaker, resulting in lower µSBS. Thermocycling revealed that the bonding durability of the 1-SE strategy is inferior to that of to multi-step strategies.
Keywords: bond strength, durability, etch-and-rinse, self-etch, universal adhesive
Open Access Online OnlyCase SeriesDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4515555, PubMed ID (PMID): 37843502Pages 195-210, Language: English
Purpose: Newly developed non-invasive methods for replace a missing tooth and closing single-tooth gaps in the poster- ior region using resin composite are presented.
Materials and Methods: Four different non-invasive methods and the technical procedures, materials and instruments used are presented in a case series. These include the direct intraoral insertion of composite (with and without individual shaping aids) and indirect restorations, which are fabricated conventionally or digitally and bonded.
Results: The case series showed that all four methods can be used to replace single missing teeth in the posterior region, meeting current clinical requirements. Particular attention was paid to the design of the pontics, the dimension of the connector area, firm proximal contacts to the adjacent teeth, hygiene, and appearance of the non-prep bridges (NPBs). The advantages and disadvantages for both the direct and indirect techniques illustrated in this case series were com- pared in detail.
Conclusions: Several direct and indirect non-invasive methods for single-tooth replacement are available today. Although the evidence is still limited, there is a potential for frugal dental interventions with NPBs. Further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to demonstrate that they reliably meet quality requirements (including sufficient survival rates), satisfy the criteria of cost-effectiveness (compared to treatment alternatives) and that there is a demand from the population.
Keywords: all-composites, cantilever design, gap-closure in the posterior area, non-invasive restorative methods
Open Access Online OnlyCase ReportDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4515527, PubMed ID (PMID): 37843503Pages 211-218, Language: English
Purpose: This case report presents a direct composite inverse injection technique using a bi-layer clear mini-index fabricated with a digital workflow to restore extensive posterior occlusal cavities in a 13-year-old patient.
Materials and Methods: After a root canal treatment in the right mandibular first molar and step-wise excavation of deep caries in the left mandibular first molar, the extensive occlusal restorations were digitally designed using CAD software, upon which digital wax-ups were 3D-printed. Bi-layer clear mini-indices consisting of a hard outer plastic layer and an elastic inner silicone layer were prepared from the 3D-printed cast. The bonding surfaces were deproteinized using a 6% sodium hypochlorite solution, and an antioxidant (Clearfil DC Activator; Kuraray Noritake) was utilized to improve the dentin bonding durability of a 2-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond 2; Kuraray Noritake). Subsequently, a highly filled universal-shade flowable resin composite (RC) was incrementally placed into the cavities. To create the final occlusal morphology, the same RC was inversely injected through the opening of the bi-layer indices.
Results: The workflow was feasible, and the occlusal cavities were efficiently restored using the injection technique. Occlusal carving and adjustments of the morphology were not necessary, leading to less chair time. At the 1-year follow-up, the clinical outcome was excellent.
Conclusion: The injection technique with a bi-layer clear mini-index accurately translated the digital wax-ups into large, final restorations. Precise morphology and shortened chair time enhanced patient satisfaction, but at the expense of multiple visits.
Keywords: bi-layer clear mini-index, digital workflow, direct composite restoration, endodontically treated tooth, injection technique
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4586857, PubMed ID (PMID): 37910068Pages 219-230, Language: English
Purpose: The first objective was to determine if dual-curing of resin cement with reduced light could affect interfacial adaptations of zirconia restoration. The second objective was to examine whether cement type and pretreatment method of universal adhesive affected interfacial adaptation. The final objective was to compare the polymerization degree of cement under different reduced-light conditions.
Materials and Methods: Inlay cavities were prepared on extracted third molars. Translucent zirconia restorations were milled using Katana UTML (Kuraray Noritake) in three groups with restoration thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Each group had three subgroups using different cementation methods. For subgroup 1, restorations were cemented with self-adhesive cement. For subgroup 2, universal adhesive was applied and light cured. After the restoration was seated with conventional resin cement, light curing was performed. For subgroup 3, after adhesive was applied, the restoration was seated with conventional resin cement. Light curing was performed for the adhesive and cement simultaneously. After thermocycling, interfacial adaptation at the restoration-tooth interface was investigated using swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. Finally, polymerization shrinkage of the cement was measured using a linometer and compared under the conditions of different zirconia thicknesses and light-curing durations.
Results: Interfacial adaptation varied signficantly depending on the zirconia thickness, pretreatment, polymerization mode and cements used (p < 0.05). The effects of the adhesive and polymerization shrinkage differed signficantly, depending on the reduced light under the zirconia (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Lower curing-light irradiance may lead to inferior adaptation and lower polymerization of the cement. Polymerization of resin cement can differ depending on the light irradiance and exposure duration.
Keywords: interfacial adaptation, translucent zirconia, resin cement, polymerization shrinkage strain, exposure reciprocity, radiant exposure window
Open Access Online OnlySystematic Review and Meta-analysisDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4646943, PubMed ID (PMID): 37975312Pages 231-240, Language: English
Purpose: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of in-vitro bond strength to glass-ceramics using hydrofluoric acid (HF) at lower (<5%) and higher (>5%) concentrations ([HF]) to treat ceramic surfaces.
Methods: Systematic searches were carried out in PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, and Web of Science for articles published through July 2021, and a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the combined effect by comparing the differences between the standardized means of the bond strengths of the evaluated materials.
Results: In total, 943 articles were found, of which 17 studies were selected for qualitative analysis and 12 for quantitative analysis. The bond strength to glass-ceramics using 4% to 5% HF did not differ from that using 7% to 10% HF for the following HF etching times and glass-ceramic materials: 20 s for lithium-disilicate (Z = 0.65, p = 0.51), 60 s for feldspathic (Z = 0.53, p = 0.60), and 60 s for leucite (Z = 0.72, p = 0.35).
Conclusion: The lower concentration HF (<5%) etchant is a reliable surface treatment for adhesive bonding to glass-ceramics with satisfactory bond strength in short-term evaluations.
Keywords: ceramics, dental bonding, shear strength
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b4646953, PubMed ID (PMID): 37975313Pages 241-256, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the bonding performance of three universal adhesives (UAs) to dentin and the effect of different curing modes and hydrofluoric-acid (HF) etching of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic on the adhesive performance of two UA/composite cement (CC) combinations.
Materials and Methods: In the first project part, the immediate and aged (25k and 50k thermocycles) microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of the two light-curing UAs G2-Bond Universal (G2B; GC) and Scotchbond Universal Plus (SBUp; 3M Oral Care), and the self-curing UA Tokuyama Universal Bond II (TUBII; Tokuyama) to flat dentin was measured, when applied in both E&R and SE bonding mode using a split-tooth design (n = 10). The resultant adhesive-dentin interfaces were characterized using TEM. In the second project part, CAD/CAM composite blocks were luted to flat dentin with either Scotchbond Universal Plus/RelyX Universal (SBUp/RxU; 3M Oral Care) or Tokuyama Universal Bond II/Estecem II Plus (TUBII/ECIIp; Tokuyama Dental) using different curing modes (AA mode: auto-curing of both adhesive and cement; AL mode: auto-curing of adhesive and light-curing of cement), upon which their immediate and aged (25k and 50k thermocycles) µTBS was measured. In the third project part, the same UA/CC combinations were luted to CAD/CAM glass-ceramic to measure their immediate and aged (6-month water storage) shear bond strength (SBS).
Results: In E&R bonding mode, the performance of G2B, SBUp and TUBII was not significantly different in terms of µTBS, while G2B and SBUp significantly outperformed TUBII in SE bonding mode. No significant difference in µTBS was found between the SBUp/RxU and TUBII/ECIIp UA/CC combinations, regardless of bonding mode, aging time, or curing mode. The cement-curing mode did not significantly influence µTBS, while a significantly higher µTBS was recorded for the UA/CC combinations applied in E&R bonding mode. HF significantly improved the SBS of the UA/CC combinations to glass-ceramic.
Conclusion: The self-curing adhesive performed better when applied in E&R than in SE bonding mode. The curing mode did not influence the adhesive performance of the composite cements, while an E&R bonding mode rendered more favorable adhesion in a self-curing luting protocol. When bonding to glass-ceramic, the adhesive performance of the universal adhesive/composite cement combinations benefited from HF etching.
Keywords: adhesion, bonding, light curing, self-curing, bond strength, TEM