Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3801051, PubMed ID (PMID): 36633468Pages 1-12, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with silicon hydride (SiH4) at different times on HT-zirconia surface characteristics and bonding of composite cement before and after thermocycling.
Materials and Methods: Blocks of HT zirconia were obtained, polished, sintered and divided into five groups, according to PECVD time (n = 31): Zr-30 (30 s), Zr-60 (60 s), Zr-120 (120 s) and Zr-300 (300 s). The control group (Zr-0) did not receive PECVD. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in conjunction with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), goniometry, and profilometry tests were used for chemical and topographic characterization. Monobond N silane (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to the surface, and a cylinder of composite cement (Variolink N) was made (3 x 3 mm). Half of the specimens of each group were stored for 24 h or subjected to thermocycling (6 x 103 cycles). A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed. Results were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05).
Results: For experimental groups, XPS showed that formation of Si-O bonds contributed to increased surface free energy (SFE). FE-SEM and EDS showed that the longer the deposition time, the greater the amount of silicon on the surface. Zr-60 and Zr-300 presented higher and lower surface roughnesses, respectively. The silicon penetrated the microstructure, causing higher stress concentrations. The bond strength to composite cement was improved after all PECVD deposition times.
Conclusion: The PECVD technique with SiH4, associated with chemical treatment with primer based on silane methacrylate, is a solely chemical surface treatment capable of maintaining bonding between composite cement and HT zirconia.
Keywords: dental ceramics, zirconia, silicon, aging, bond strength
Open Access Online OnlyResearchDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3801065, PubMed ID (PMID): 36633469Pages 13-22, Language: English
Purpose: This study compared a 2%-CHX dentin pre-treatment with three CHX adhesives (experimentally admixed 0.1% CHX in primer or bonding agent, or industrially added 0.2% CHX in universal adhesive) by evaluating dentin bond strengths after biological loading in a fully automated artificial mouth model.
Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin of 50 freshly extracted human third molars was exposed, and the teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the adhesive protocol (n = 10): 1. control, Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M Oral Care; CTRL); 2. 2% CHX dentin pre-treatment (DENT); 3. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the primer (PRIM); 4. 0.1% CHX experimentally admixed into the bonding agent (BOND); 5. Peak Universal Bond containing 0.2% CHX (Ultradent; PEAK). The teeth were restored with composite resin. Microtensile bond strength testing (bonding area 0.46 mm2 ± 0.04 mm2, crosshead speed 1 mm/min) was performed after 24-h storage in distilled water (baseline) or after 2-day biological loading with S. mutans (demineralization 1 h / remineralization 5 h). The mode of fracture was recorded and exemplary sticks were evaluated under SEM.
Results: CTRL exhibited significantly higher μTBS at baseline in comparison to PRIM (p = 0.000), BOND (p = 0.002), and PEAK (p = 0.000). After undergoing the caries model, CTRL demonstrated significantly lower μTBS compared to DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.008), and PEAK (p = 0.000). The same behavior was observed for BOND vs DENT (p = 0.000), PRIM (p = 0.003), and PEAK (p = 0.001). After biological loading, DENT (p = 0.041), PRIM (p = 0.000), and BOND (p = 0.000) exhibited significantly fewer adhesive fractures than CTRL.
Conclusions: CHX addition to the primer protects dentin bond strength from declining after biological loading. Thus, it may offer some clinical advantage in terms of secondary caries inhibition around composite restorations. However, since loss of adhesion at baseline was less when 2% CHX was used as a dentin pre-treatment, it can be suggested as a safer option. so that bonding is not undermined by potential chemical interactions from CHX with the adhesives.
Keywords: biofilm, biological loading, bond durability, cariology, chlorhexidine gluconate, dentin bonding, microtensile bond strength
Open Access Online OnlySHORT COMMUNICATIONDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3831385, PubMed ID (PMID): 36689275Pages 23-29, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the bond durability of composite cement to zirconia after treatment with a 15-methacryloyloxypentadecyl dihydrogen phosphate (15-MPDP)-containing adhesive and 2 commercially available adhesives.
Materials and Methods: Ninety zirconia bars were fabricated and bonded to prepolymerized resin composite cylinders with a composite cement after surface treatment for 20 s using the following adhesives: Adper Easy One (AEO, negative control), Single Bond Universal (SBU, positive control), and 10 wt% 15-MPDP powder mixed with Adper Easy One (15- MPDP). After storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were divided into 3 subgroups according to the aging treatment applied (n = 10): no aging treatment (0/TC), 10,000 thermocycles (1/TC), and 37,500 thermocycles (3/TC). Shear bond strength (SBS) was analyzed using two-way ANOVA (p < 0.05), and the fracture surfaces were examined under a dental microscope.
Results: Significant differences in the SBSs among the surface treatments and aging treatments were observed (both p < 0.001). The 15-MPDP and SBU groups showed significantly higher SBSs than the AEO group, whereas similar SBSs were found in the 15-MPDP and SBU groups. Significant reductions in the SBSs were found after 37,500 thermocycles (p < 0.001), although no significant difference between specimens aged with 10,000 thermocycles and non-aged specimens was observed.
Conclusions: The 15-MPDP-containing dental adhesive exhibited bond durability comparable to that of a well-established 10-MDP-containing universal adhesive. Aging by 10,000 thermocycles may be insufficient to disrupt the bond of composite cement to zirconia.
Keywords: zirconia bonding, thermocycling, 10-MDP, 15-MPDP, shear bond strength
Open Access Online OnlyCase SeriesDOI: 10.3290/j.jad.b3837959, PubMed ID (PMID): 36700550Pages 31-38, Language: English
Purpose: This retrospective case series of 9 patients aimed to describe clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction following the implementation of the posterior Dahl concept to manage localized posterior tooth wear.
Materials and Methods: Localized occlusal space was created in the posterior dentition. Supra-occluding direct restorations were placed bilaterally for the restoration of molars. Intraoral scans were taken at the pre-treatment stage, immediately post-restoration, and during follow-up appointments. Scans were used to undertake analysis of any occlusal changes and re-establishment of the occlusion. A questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction, alleviation of any pre-treatment concerns, and evaluation of post-treatment complaints.
Results: Immediately post-treatment, all patients showed an increase in the vertical dimension. Opening of the bite in the untreated areas following restoration of worn posterior molars resulted either in a tendency towards or the actual reestablishment of the occlusion. One patient completely lacked compensatory vertical tooth movement in the untreated areas, culminating in the persistence of a vertical open bite. One restoration displayed cohesive fracture after 4 months. Pre-treatment problems (eg, sensitivity) were fully resolved amongst all patients after 6 months. Post-treatment complaints were minor and demonstrated resolution within a relatively short period of time. Eight patients reported being “very satisfied” with their treatment outcomes.
Conclusion: Application of the posterior Dahl concept appears to offer a promising, relatively simple, minimally invasive and effective approach for the management of localized posterior tooth wear, which is well accepted by patients.
Keywords: restorative dentistry, direct resin composite restorations, Dahl concept, vertical dimension of occlusion, bite raising, tooth wear