Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the bonding effectiveness of two HEMA/BPA-free universal adhesives (UAs) to flat dentin, to characterize their adhesive-dentin interfacial ultrastructure, and to measure their water sorption (Wsp), water solubility (Wsl), and hydrophobicity.
Keywords: dental bonding, bond durability, water sorption, interface, HEMA, BPA
Materials and Methods: The immediate and aged (50,000 thermocycles) microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to flat dentin of the HEMA/BPA-free UAs Healbond Max (HbMax; Elsodent) and Healbond MP (HbMP; Elsodent) as well as the reference adhesives OptiBond FL (Opti-FL; Kerr), Clearfil SE Bond 2 (C-SE2; Kuraray Noritake), and Scotchbond Universal (SBU; 3M Oral Care) was measured. The adhesive-dentin interfaces of HbMax and HbMP were characterized by TEM. Wsp and Wsl of all adhesive resins and of the primer/adhesive resin mixtures of HbMax, Opti-FL, and C-SE2 were measured. Hydrophobicity was determined by measuring the contact angle of water dropped on adhesive-treated dentin.
Results: In terms of µTBS, HbMax and HbMP performed statistically similarly to Opti-FL and C-SE2, but outperformed SBU. Aging only significantly reduced the μTBS of SBU when applied in E&R bonding mode. TEM revealed typical E&R and SE hybrid-layer ultrastructures at dentin, while electron-lucent globules of unknown origin, differing in size and shape, were observed within the adhesive resin of HbMP and even more frequently in that of HbMax. Higher Wsp was measured for the primer/adhesive resin mixtures than for the adhesive resins. Opti-FL was more hydrophobic than all other adhesives tested.
Conclusion: The HEMA/BPA-free UAs bonded durably to flat dentin with bond strengths comparable to those of the gold-standard E&R/SE adhesives and superior to that of the HEMA/BPA-containing 1-step UA.