Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3818027, PubMed ID (PMID): 36651310Pages 1-6, Language: EnglishGerin, Elisabeth / Buysschaert, Martin / Lasserre, Jérôme F. / Leprince, Julian G. / Toma, Selena
Purpose: This study aimed to compare insulin status and dysglycemia (prediabetes/diabetes) of patients with chronic (stage III, grade B) or aggressive periodontitis (stage III, grade C) to that of a healthy population.
Materials and Methods: Patients with chronic (CP, n = 16) or aggressive periodontitis (AP, n = 15) and periodontally healthy controls (n = 32) were recruited. Body mass index was calculated. Glycemia, plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and lipid levels were measured in fasting. The Homeostasis Model Assessment was used to calculate the insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S), the beta-cell function (HOMA-%B), and their hyperbolic product (HOMA-%BxS).
Results: The CP group showed statistically significantly insulin resistance with a lower HOMA-%S (p = 0.0003) and a reduced HOMA-%BxS (p = 0.049) despite a higher insulin level (p = 0.01) vs the control group, even after BMI adjustment. There was also a trend to dysglycemia (prediabetes/diabetes) in the chronic group. In patients with AP, no abnormalities in insulin status were observed and glycemic levels were comparable with controls. Additionally, patients in both AP and CP groups presented significantly higher CRP levels compared to those of the control group (p = 0.02).
Conclusion: Patients with CP showed reduced insulin sensitivity, increased insulin levels but a reduced %BxS product and a trend to dysglycemia. These abnormalities were not observed in AP.
Keywords: diabetes, periodontal disease, risk factor(s), systemic health/disease
Open Access Online OnlyNarrative ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3818045, PubMed ID (PMID): 36651311Pages 7-15, Language: EnglishFu, Yuwen / Xu, Xin / Zhang, Yu / Yue, Peng / Fan, Yuxin / Liu, Meixiao / Chen, Jingjing / Liu, Aihua / Zhang, Xiufeng / Bao, Fukai
Summary: Periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are inflammatory diseases affecting the adult population of the world. PD is mainly caused by infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and by the synergistic action of various microorganisms. These microorganisms penetrate into the subgingival tissue and cause bacteremia, leading to disruption of the homeostasis of the internal environment of the body. Virulence factors known as gingipains, which are cysteine proteases and other toxins, including fimbria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are strongly associated with periodontitis and other systemic inflammation. PD has a known polymicrobial aetiology, and patients who eventually develop sporadic AD tend to have recurrent infections before a clinical diagnosis of dementia. AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease, is characterised by poor memory and specific hallmark proteins. An increasing number of studies have shown that periodontal pathogens are increasingly associated with this form of dementia. Many articles have shown that P. gingivalis infections directly increase the risk of PD and may indirectly lead to the development of AD. However, these links and probable pathogenesis remain to be explored. The aim of this review was to explore whether P. gingivalis periodontal infection is associated with AD and to provide possible mechanisms of association.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegenerative disease, periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis)
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3818041, PubMed ID (PMID): 36651312Pages 17-23, Language: EnglishLi, Lei / Liu, Yingqi / Guo, Jiaojiao / Zhang, Xueqiang / Jin, Zhihai / Zhang, Jing
Purpose: The present study systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) to investigate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser (ERL) as a debridement method in surgical treatment of advanced peri-implantitis.
Materials and Methods: An electronic database search and a manual search were performed until March 2022. Outcome measures were clinical attachment level (CAL) gain, probing depth (PD) reduction, plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP). The addressed PICO question was: Is ERL an effective debridement tool in the surgical treatment of advanced peri-implantitis?
Results: Five eligible randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the qualitative analysis, one of which had unclear risk of bias. One study reported a statistically significant difference in terms of implant CAL gain and PD reduction in favour of the experimental group vs the control group, while four studies did not report any difference between the two groups.
Conclusion: Due to methodological heterogeneity, such as non-standard control groups and laser parameters, this systematic review demonstrated inconclusive findings in terms of the efficacy of Er:YAG laser as a debridement method in surgical treatment of advanced peri-implantitis. The results of this review should be considered preliminary and further, well-designed studies with standardised comparators with laser parameters are warranted.
Keywords: efficacy, Er:YAG laser, peri-implantitis, systematic review
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3858591, PubMed ID (PMID): 36727835Pages 25-32, Language: EnglishYin, Nan / Li, Wenhao / Zhou, Haoyun / Zhang, Yanyong / Zhang, Wei / Ding, Wei / Ge, Hui / Zhang, Shunhua / Liao, Shengkai
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between self-rated oral health, subjective oral conditions, oral health behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Chinese college students.
Materials and Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted, inviting college students from eastern China to participate. A total of 1708 participants were included. A structural equation model was constructed to explain and assess the associations among self-rated oral health, subjective oral conditions, oral health behaviours, and OHRQoL.
Results: Self-rated oral health had a direct positive effect on subjective oral conditions and OHRQoL. Oral health behaviours had direct negative impacts on subjective oral conditions and OHRQoL as well as on tooth condition perception and oral health interventions. Subjective oral conditions had a direct positive effect on OHRQoL. There was a positive correlation between oral health behaviours and self-rated oral health. In addition, subjective oral conditions partially mediated both the effect of oral health behaviours on OHRQoL and the effect of self-rated oral health on OHRQoL.
Conclusion: There were influential associations between self-rated oral health, subjective oral conditions, oral health behaviours, and OHRQoL among college students in eastern China. Making the most of their association can be a guide to radically improving the oral health of college students.
Keywords: oral health behaviours, oral health-related quality of life, self-rated oral health, structural equation modeling, subjective oral conditions
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3858615, PubMed ID (PMID): 36727836Pages 33-40, Language: EnglishFogh, Frederikke Maria / Jensen, Simon Storgård / Kofod, Thomas / Lauridsen, Eva
Purpose: To investigate the survival rate of dental implants in patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).
Materials and Methods: The study is a retrospective analysis of six individuals (2 males, 4 females) with OI (type I, III and IV) with a total of 25 dental implants. Clinical examination included plaque index, gingival index, periodontal pocket depth for each implant, presence of pus, and loosening of the implant(s). Marginal bone loss was measured on radiographs. The observation period ranged from 2–17 years (mean:7.5 years, median: 5 years).
Results: The overall implant survival rate was 80%. One patient with OI type III lost five implants. However, four out of five lost implants functioned for 11 years.
Conclusion: Dental implant treatment seems to be a valid option for replacing missing teeth in OI patients. It is recommended that patients diagnosed with OI undergo the same preoperative evaluation as regular dental implant patients with special emphasis on a healthy periodontal status and ideal oral hygiene.
Keywords: dental implants, implant success, implant survival, osteogenesis imperfecta
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3858625, PubMed ID (PMID): 36727837Pages 41-48, Language: EnglishDobler, Liana / Hamza, Blend / Attin, Thomas / Wegehaupt, Florian J.
Purpose: To investigate the absolute wear caused by toothpastes with highly discrepant REA (Relative Enamel Abrasivity) and RDA (Relative Dentin Abrasivity) values on both enamel and dentin: Candida Peppermint (CP; REA: 1; RDA: 42), Colgate Total Original (CTO; REA: 4; RDA: 100), Signal White System (SWS; REA: 8; RDA: 143), and Candida White Diamond (CWD; REA 244; RDA: 12).
Materials and Methods: Eighty (80) bovine enamel samples and 80 dentin samples were divided into four groups each (n = 20) and investigated after a 6-h brushing procedure (21,600 cycles, 60 cycles/min, load of 2.5 N) with the four toothpastes. The abrasive enamel and dentin wear were registered using a contact profilometer. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of the abrasive enamel and dentin wear were calculated for each group. Pairwise comparisons were conducted using the Wilcoxon signed-rank exact test, and the p-value was adjusted according to Holm (statistical significance set at 0.05).
Results: CWD led to the highest abrasive enamel wear (9.86 μm [5.77]). CTO caused the highest abrasive dentin wear (166.70 μm [69.90]), being statistically significantly higher than the wear for CP (54.20 μm [24.00]) and CWD (17.00 μm [7.80]) (p = 0.00001). The abrasive dentin wear for CWD was statistically significantly lower in comparison to all other groups (p = 0.00001).
Conclusion: Toothpastes with highly discrepant REA and RDA values presented statistically significantly different absolute wear on enamel and dentin. REA and RDA values should both be declared for every toothpaste.
Keywords: abrasive dentin wear, abrasive enamel wear, RDA, REA, toothpaste abrasivity
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3904343, PubMed ID (PMID): 36794777Pages 49-60, Language: EnglishZhang, Yuhan / Ren, Xiaolin / Hu, Tao / Cheng, Ran / Bhowmick, Neil A.
Purpose: Periodontal disease is potentially related to certain kinds of cancer. This review aimed to summarize the relationship between periodontal disease and breast cancer, providing some strategies for the clinical treatment and periodontal health care of breast cancer patients.
Materials and Methods: Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, case series and reports were collected using search terms entered into the PubMed, Google Scholar and JSTOR databases.
Results: Research has provided some evidence that periodontal disease is related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Periodontal disease and breast cancer have some common pathogenic factors. Periodontal disease may affect the initiation and development of breast cancer involving microorganisms and inflammation. Periodontal health is affected by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
Conclusions: Periodontal therapy for breast cancer patients should be performed differently according to the stage of cancer treatment. Adjuvant endocrine treatment (e.g. bisphosphonates) has a great impact on oral treatment. Periodontal therapy contributes to the primary prevention of breast cancer. Periodontal health care of breast cancer patients is worthy of clinician attention.
Keywords: breast cancer, clinical treatment, periodontal disease, periodontal health care
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3904349, PubMed ID (PMID): 36794778Pages 61-68, Language: EnglishMahmood, Athraa A. / Abbas, Raghad Fadhil
Purpose: Periodontitis is associated with caspase and proinflammatory mediators, such as caspase-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary levels of caspase-1 and TNF-α and determine their accuracy in differentiating periodontitis patients from individuals with a healthy periodontium.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study enrolled 90 subjects, aged 30 to 55, attending the Department of Periodontics at Baghdad’s outpatient clinic. Patients were initially screened to evaluate their eligibility for recruitment. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, subjects with a healthy periodontium were included in group 1 (controls), while subjects with periodontitis were included in group 2 (patients). The salivary levels of caspase-1 and TNF-α in participants’ unstimulated saliva were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then the periodontal status was determined using the following indices: full-mouth plaque, full-mouth bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession.
Results: TNF-α and caspase-1 salivary levels were higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy controls and were positively correlated with all clinical parameters. A positive significant correlation between TNF-α and caspase-1 salivary levels was noticed. For differentiating periodontal health and periodontitis, the area under the curve (AUC) values of TNF-α and caspase-1 were 0.978 and 0.998, while the proposed cut-off points were 128.163 pg/ml and 1.626 ng/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: The present findings supported a previous discovery that periodontitis patients have significantly higher levels of salivary TNF-α. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the salivary levels of TNF-α and caspase-1. Furthermore, caspase-1 and TNF-α showed high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of periodontitis, as well as distinguishing periodontitis from periodontal health.
Keywords: caspase-1, periodontitis, saliva, TNF-α
Open Access Online OnlyOral MedicineDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3920023, PubMed ID (PMID): 36825640Pages 69-76, Language: EnglishTennert, Christian / Giada, Sarra / Stähli, Alexandra / Sculean, Anton / Eick, Sigrun
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of bovine milk and yogurt on selected oral microorganisms and different oral biofilms.
Materials and Methods: Milk was prepared from 0.5% fat (low-fat) and 16% fat (high fat) milk powder. For yogurt preparation, the strains Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgarcius and Streptococcus thermophilus were added to the milk. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal microbiocidal concentrations (MMC) of the test compounds were measured against various microorganisms by the microbroth dilution technique. Cariogenic periodontal biofilms and one containing Candida were created on plastic surfaces coated with test substances. Further, preformed biofilms were exposed to the test substances at a concentration of 100% for 10 min and thereafter 10% for 50 min. Both colony forming units (cfu) and metabolic activity were quantified in the biofilms.
Results: Neither high-fat milk, low-fat milk nor casein inhibited the growth of any species. Yogurt and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus at low MIC and MMC suppressed the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and other bacteria associated with periodontal disease. High-fat yogurt decreased cfu in the forming periodontal biofilm by 90%. Both low- and high-fat yogurts reduced metabolic activity in newly forming and preformed periodontal and Candida biofilms, but not in the cariogenic biofilm.
Conclusions: Yogurt and L. delbru eckii ssp. bulgaricus, but not milk, were bactericidal against periodontopathogenic bacteria. Yoghurt reduced the metabolic activity of a Candida biofilm and a periodontal biofilm. Yogurt and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus may have potential in prevention and therapy of periodontal diseases and Candida infections.
Keywords: Candida, caries, milk products, oral bacteria, periodontitis
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3956549, PubMed ID (PMID): 36920255Pages 77-82, Language: EnglishHariyani, Ninuk / Setyowati, Dini / Listl, Stefan / Nair, Rahul
Purpose: Education is well-known as a determinant of oral health and dental behaviours in high-income countries, but much less is known for countries with lower incomes. This study aimed to identify the extent to which education affects oral health and dental behaviours in Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: This study used data from the Indonesian Basic Health Survey 2013. From this nationally representative sample of 945,057 people 5–100 years old, a series of mixed-effects Poisson regression models that accounted for sampling weights estimated the effect of educational attainment on edentulism, dental care utilisation, and toothbrushing behaviour.
Results: Consistent educational gradients were found for all outcomes and across all model specifications. People without a formal educational degree had a 1.03 (95% CI: 1.03–1.04) times higher risk of not utilising any dental care, a 3.15 (95% CI: 2.47–4.02) times higher risk of being edentulous, and a 15.6 (95% CI: 12.76–19.02) times higher risk of having low toothbrushing frequency than people having a university degree or higher.
Conclusions: Stark and consistent educational gradients were observed in the dentate status, dental services utilisation, and toothbrushing in Indonesia. Educational inequalities were much larger for toothbrushing behaviours than for dental care utilisation. Intervention points for health policy should urgently prioritise public health interventions to promote overall educational attainment, preventive services, and dental care targeted at those with lower educational attainment.
Keywords: edentulism, educational inequality, dental service utilisation, population-based study, toothbrushing frequency
Open Access Online OnlyOral HealthDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3957085, PubMed ID (PMID): 36920256Pages 83-92, Language: EnglishLi, Zhuoying / Zhang, Ke / Huang, Yulei / Pandey, Manisha / Xu, Huaimin / Zhang, Hong
Purpose: To assess the levels of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in orthodontic patients both during the suspension of dental services caused by COVID-19 and after a year of dental service reinstatement, and to evaluate the associated factors for OHRQoL in those patients during the suspension period.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted both during the suspension of dental service due to COVID-19 (T1) and after a year of dental service reinstatement (T2). The questionnaire – consisting of personal information, subjective complaints, OHIP-14 and oral health conditions – was completed by the participants at T1 and T2. Data were evaluated by the Χ2 test, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: 324 participants were ultimately included in the study sample. The participants reported higher OHIP-14 total scores at T1 than T2 (p < 0.001). Statistically significant differences were detected in the domains psychological discomfort, psychological disability, social disability and handicap (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that wearing fixed appliances, being over 18 years old, having delayed orthodontic treatment and poor oral hygiene habits were statistically significantly associated with higher OHIP-14 total scores at T1 (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The OHRQoL in orthodontic patients was negatively impacted by the suspension of dental services during COVID-19, which was reflected in all the psychosocial domains. Types of appliances, ages, delays in follow-up visits and oral hygiene habits seemed to be the factors associated with OHRQoL in orthodontic patients during the suspension.
Keywords: COVID-19, oral health, oral hygiene, psychosocial factors, quality of life