DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34173, PubMed ID (PMID): 25969839Pages 103, Language: English
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34060, PubMed ID (PMID): 25911962Pages 107-116, Language: English
Purpose: This study compared the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of two etch-and-rinse (ER) (OptiBond FL [OBFL]; Prime & Bond NT [PBNT]) and three self-etching (SE) (Clearfil SE Bond [CSEB]; Xeno III [XIII]; Xeno V+ [XV+]) adhesives systems to bur-prepared human enamel considering active (AA) and passive (PA) application of the self-etching systems.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-six enamel surfaces were prepared with a medium-grit diamond bur and randomly allocated into 8 groups to receive adhesive restorations: G1: OBFL; G2: PBNT; G3: CSEB/PA; G4: CSEB/ AA; G5: XIII/PA; G6: XIII/AA; G7: XV+/PA; G8: XV+/AA. After composite buildup, samples were sectioned to obtain a total of 279 bonded sticks (1 mm2) that were submitted to microtensile testing (μTBS; 0.5 mm/min) after 24-h water storage (37°C). Etching patterns and adhesive interfacial ultramorphology were also evaluated with confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Weibull probabilistic distribution was also determined.
Results: Regarding μTBS, both adhesive system and application mode yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) among groups. ER adhesive systems together with CSEB/AA and XIII/PA recorded the highest and statistically similar bond strength results. XV+ presented very low bond strength values, regardless of the application mode. Among self-etching adhesives, CSEB produced significantly higher μTBS values when applied actively. Qualitative evaluation by SEM and CLSM revealed substantial differences between groups both in adhesive interfaces and enamel conditioning patterns.
Conclusions: ER and SE adhesive systems presented distinctive bond strengths to bur-cut enamel. The application mode effect was adhesive dependent. Active application improved etching patterns and resin interfaces micromorphology.
Keywords: adhesive systems, microtensile bond strength, application mode, enamel, morphology
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33972, PubMed ID (PMID): 25830164Pages 117-123, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of monomers and solvents/diluents on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) bond strength of experimental low-viscosity resins (infiltrants) to enamel caries-like lesions (ECLL).
Materials and Methods: Flat enamel blocks obtained from sound human third molars were submitted to ECLL formation and randomly distributed into 9 groups (n = 10): G1: TEG-DMA 100%; G2: TEG-DMA 80%, ethanol 20%; G3; TEG-DMA 80%, HEMA 20%; G4: TEG-DMA 75%, UDMA 25%; G5: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G6: TEG-DMA 60%, UDMA 20%, HEMA 20%; G7: TEG-DMA 75%, bis-EMA 25%; G8: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, ethanol 20%; G9: TEG-DMA 60%, bis-EMA 20%, HEMA 20%. After etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s, experimental infiltrants were actively applied and photocured for 60 s, then stored in 100% humidity (24 h, 37°C). Hourglass-shaped specimens were obtained and the μTBS test performed (MPa). The fracture patterns were assessed by SEM. Data were submitted to two way-ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05).
Results: The highest μTBS value was observed for G4 (TEG-DMA/UDMA, 19.18 MPa) and the lowest for G5 (TEG-DMA/UDMA/ethanol, 9.00 MPa). A significant decrease in μTBS was observed for all groups containing ethanol (G2, G5, and G8). The addition of HEMA did not affect μTBS values. Most groups showed a high frequency of mixed failure between infiltrant and enamel.
Conclusion: The addition of bis-EMA or UDMA to TEG-DMA-based infiltrants did not improve bond strength to carious enamel. The ethanol addition negatively affected the bonding strength of infiltrants to enamel caries-like lesions, regardless of the resin matrix composition of the infiltrant.
Keywords: bond strength, enamel, infiltration
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34058, PubMed ID (PMID): 25901300Pages 125-131, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the bonding of a new universal adhesive applied using different etching strategies on sound and caries-affected dentin of primary teeth.
Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces from 50 primary molars were randomly assigned to 10 groups according to substrate (sound dentin [SD] vs caries-affected dentin [CAD] pH cycled for 14 days) and bonding approach (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive: self-etching, vs dry or wet-bonding etch-and-rinse strategies; Adper Single Bond Plus [two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive] and Clearfil SE Bond [two-step self-etching system] as controls). After 24 h of water storage, bonded sticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.8 mm2 were tested for microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Two sticks from each tooth were immersed in silver nitrate solution in order to evaluate nanoleakage (NL) with SEM. The μTBS means were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. For NL, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used (α = 0.05).
Results: The influence of the etching strategy on the bonding performance of the universal adhesive was substrate dependent. The self-etching approach resulted in lower μTBS values and higher silver nitrate uptake into hybrid layers for Scotchbond Universal Adhesive on SD, while no difference among experimental groups was observed in CAD.
Conclusion: It is preferable to use the universal adhesive following either a dry- or wet-bonding etch-and-rinse approach on both sound and caries-affected primary dentin.
Keywords: dentin, microtensile, nanoleakage, etch-and-rinse, self-etching, one-step adhesive
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34059, PubMed ID (PMID): 25901301Pages 133-139, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the long-term effect of a 2% aqueous chlorhexidine (CHX) solution on bond strength to artificially eroded dentin compared to sound dentin.
Materials and Methods: Flat mid-coronal dentin surfaces of extracted third molars (n = 28) were subjected only to grinding with a 600-grit SiC paper for 1 min (sound dentin S, n = 14) or additionally to erosive pH cycling with a cola-based soft-drink (eroded dentin E, n = 14). After acid etching, rinsing, and air drying, S and E were rehydrated with 1.5 μl of 2% CHX (S2%, n = 7; E2%, n = 7) or of distilled water (control SC, n = 7; EC, n = 7). Composite buildups were incrementally constructed with Filtek Z350 following Adper Single Bond 2 application. Specimens were sectioned into beams, which were subjected to microtensile testing immediately or after 6 or 12 months of aging. Fractured surfaces were observed under a digital microscope (50X magnification). Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) (MPa) was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05) and failure mode by the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05).
Results: Compared to sound dentin, eroded dentin was consistently related to lower μTBS. Immediately and after 12-month aging, the effect of CHX was insignificant, but it was significant after 6-month aging, when it conserved the bond strength to both eroded and sound dentin. The percentage of adhesive and mixed failures were equivalent, and significantly more frequent than cohesive failures, whether in dentin or in composite.
Conclusion: The 2% CHX effect on bond strength conservation to both eroded and sound dentin was not found to be persistent.
Keywords: tooth erosion, dentin, bonding stability, chlorhexidine, proteases inhibitors, aging
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33994, PubMed ID (PMID): 25859569Pages 141-146, Language: English
Purpose: To determine the bond stability and the change in interfacial ultrastructure of a conventional glassionomer cement bonded to dentin, with and without pretreatment using a polyalkenoic acid conditioner.
Materials and Methods: The occlusal dentin surfaces of 10 teeth were ground flat. Glass-ionomer cement was bonded to the surfaces either with or without polyalkenoic acid conditioning. The teeth were sectioned into 1-mm2 stick-shaped specimens. The 200 specimens obtained were randomly assigned to four groups with different periods of storage in water: 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was determined for each storage time. Additional specimens were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM); they were produced with or without prior polyalkenoic acid conditioning in the same manner as for the μTBS test.
Results: There was no significant difference in μTBS to conditioned dentin (p > 0.05). After 6 months of aging, the μTBS to non-conditioned dentin was significantly reduced as compared to the 1-week, 1-month, and 3-month results (p < 0.05). The failures appeared to be of a mixed nature, although aging caused more areas of cohesive than adhesive failure in all groups. TEM observation showed a demineralized layer and an amorphous gel phase in the polyalkenoic acid conditioned group.
Conclusion: Aging did not reduce the bond strength of the conventional glass-ionomer cement to dentin when the surface was pretreated with a polyalkenoic acid conditioner.
Keywords: adhesion, dentin, glass-ionomer cement, microtensile bond strength, transmission electron microscopy
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33973, PubMed ID (PMID): 25893223Pages 147-154, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the marginal quality of composite resin restorations placed in extracted molars either in bulk (4 mm) or three increments.
Materials and Methods: Sixteen extracted mandibular molars were selected and two two-surface cavities were prepared in each tooth (proximal depth 4 mm, occlusal width 5 mm). On one side of the tooth, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied in a single increment; on the other side, Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied in three increments: a horizontal gingival, an oblique buccal, and an oblique lingual increment. Each layer was light cured for 10 s with a Bluephase G2 curing light (1200 mW/cm2). Two adhesive systems were employed according to the instructions for use: the single-component etch-and-rinse system ExciTE F (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the self-etching two-component system AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent). The adhesive was light cured for 10 s with a Bluephase G2 curing light (1200 mW/cm2). Eight fillings were placed for each test group and all restoration margins were confined to the enamel. After 10,000 cycles of thermocycling (5°C/55°C), the quality of the proximal margins was semiquantitatively directly evaluated with a stereomicroscope at low magnification and a dental explorer using the SQUACE (semi-quantitative evaluation of restorations) method. In addition, replicas were made for SEM analysis, which was carried out four weeks later at high magnification (200X) by measuring the percentage of regular proximal margins in relation to the entire margin.
Results: After thermocycling, statistically significantly higher percentages of regular margins were detected for those fillings placed with the etch-and-rinse system ExciTE F than for those placed with the self-etching system AdheSE - irrespective of the evaluation method (Mann-Whitney non-parametric test, p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the resin restorations placed in bulk and those placed in three increments (Mann-Whitney, p > 0.05). The semi-quantitative evaluation by means of a light microscope yielded statistically significantly higher values for regular margin than did the SEM evaluation for all 4 test groups (p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficient for both evaluation groups was 0.87 (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: The marginal quality of medium-sized Class II restorations of composite resins placed in one increment was similar to that of restorations placed in several increments. The semiquantitative evaluation of the marginal quality with an explorer at low magnification is an effective and rapid method to predict the clinical performance of direct restorations.
Keywords: bulk-fill composite material, incremental technique, marginal quality, SEM, SQUACE
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33892, PubMed ID (PMID): 25763410Pages 155-161, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the cytotoxicity of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gel applied for 15 min to sound or restored teeth with two-step self-etching adhesive systems and composite resin.
Materials and Methods: Sound and restored enamel/dentin disks were stored in water for 24 h or 6 months + thermocycling. The disks were adapted to artificial pulp chambers and placed in compartments containing culture medium. Immediately after bleaching, the culture medium in contact with dentin was applied for 1 h to previously cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Thereafter, cell viability (MTT assay) and morphology (SEM) were assessed. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%).
Results: In comparison to the negative control group (no treatment), no significant cell viability reduction occurred in those groups in which sound teeth were bleached. However, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed in the adhesive-restored bleached groups compared to negative control. No significant difference among bleached groups was observed with respect to the presence of restoration and storage time.
Conclusion: The application of 35% HP bleaching gel to sound teeth for 15 min does not cause toxic effects in pulp cells. When this bleaching protocol was performed in adhesive-restored teeth, a significant toxic effect occurred.
Keywords: laboratory research, toxicity, odontoblasts, tooth bleaching, adhesives
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33971, PubMed ID (PMID): 25830163Pages 163-168, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effect of pre-repair aging periods and intermediate adhesive systems based on different monomers on the repair bond strength of silorane-based resin composite.
Materials and Methods: A total of 32 Filtek P90 (3M ESPE) substrate specimens (4 mm diameter and 4 mm height) were made. Substrate specimens were grouped according to the pre-repair time periods into four groups (n = 8/group): 15 to 30 min, 24 h, 1 month, and 3 months. All substrate specimens were ground flat using a diamond stone and were etched using Scotchbond phosphoric acid etchant (3M ESPE). The specimens of each pre-repair time period were equally distributed among the two repair groups, using either silorane-based (P90 System Adhesive) or acrylamide-based (AdheSE One F, Ivoclar Vivadent) intermediate adhesive systems. Specimens of P90 System adhesive received Filtek P90 as the repair resin composite, and Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) was used with AdheSE One F specimens. Additional specimens were made from the repair resin composite materials to study the cohesive strength. Specimens were sliced into sticks (0.6 ± 0.01 mm2) for microtensile bond strength testing (μTBS). Modes of failure were determined.
Results: Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed no significant effect for the pre-repair aging periods, intermediate adhesive systems based on different monomers, or their interaction on repair bond strength of silorane-based resin composite.
Conclusion: Up to 3 months of pre-aging the repaired silorane-based resin composite had no negative effect on its repair bond strength, even when an intermediate adhesive system based on a different monomer (acrylamide) was used.
Keywords: adhesive systems, microtensile bond strength, pre-repair aging, repair, silorane-based resin composite
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33974, PubMed ID (PMID): 25969840Pages 169-174, Language: English
Purpose: To determine whether universal primers alone can deliver similar levels of adhesion of resin cement to zirconia ceramic when compared to their application in conjunction with airborne-particle abrasion.
Materials and Methods: Sintered zirconia blocks (N = 160) (Lava, 3M ESPE), (5.25 × 5.25 × 3 mm3) were embedded in acrylic resin, polished, and randomly distributed into 16 groups (n = 10 per group), according to the factors "universal primer" (8 levels) and "air-particle abrasion" (2 levels): 1. ctr: control, without application of a universal primer; 2. AP: Alloy Primer; 3. MP: Monobond Plus; 4. MZP: Metal Zirconia Primer; 5. MZ: MZ Primer; 6. Sg: Signum Zirconia Bond; 7. SbU: Singlebond Universal; 8. ZP: Z Prime Plus. The universal primers were also used after air abrasion (A) of zirconia to form the following 8 groups: Ctr-A, AP-A, MP-A, MZP-A, MZ-A, Sg-A, SbU-A, and ZP-A. After ultrasonic cleaning, air abrasion was performed using Al2O3 particles (110 μm, 2.5 bar, 20 s at 10 mm) in a chairside air-abrasion device. After ultrasonic cleaning again, universal primers were applied according to each manufacturer's recommendation. The resin cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE) was built up incrementally and photopolymerized on the zirconia surface using a silicone mold (Ø = 3.5, height = 3 mm). All specimens were stored in distilled water (60 days at 37°C) and then subjected to shear bond strength testing (SBS) in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). On a separate set of zirconia specimens, contact angle measurements were made using the sessile drop technique with a goniometer after the application of universal primers on control and air-abraded zirconia surfaces. Data (MPa) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Student's t-test (α = 0.05).
Results: When universal primers were used alone, SbU presented significantly higher mean SBS (19.5 ± 5.8) that did the other primers (0 to 9.9 ± 6.6) (p = 0.001). When air abraded, the groups AP-A (14.1 ± 6.1), MP-A (15.9 ± 5.4), ZP-A (16.9 ± 7.3), SG-A (19.1 ± 2.1), SbU-A (12 ± 1.5) showed significant differences (p = 0.03). Adhesive performance of all universal primers was enhanced after air abrasion, with the exception of the SbU and MZ primers. After air abrasion, contact angle measurements were lower for the each primer (without air abrasion: 28.9 to 83.9; with air abrasion: 27.1 to 63.0), except for MZP.
Conclusion: Air abrasion with 110 μm Al2O3 followed by universal primer application increased the bond strength of tested resin cement to zirconia, with the exception of SbU and MZ.
Keywords: adhesion, aluminum oxide, shear bond strength, wettability, yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a33993, PubMed ID (PMID): 25859568Pages 175-180, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the insertion technique for resin cement and mechanical cycling on the bond strength between fiber posts and root dentin.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-four single-rooted bovine teeth were endodontically prepared to receive glass-fiber posts. The insertion of cement into the root canal was performed using one of the following techniques: POS, insertion with the post; LEN, the use of a lentulo-type drill; EXP, insertion with a straight-tip explorer; or CEN, the use of a Centrix syringe. Half of the specimens were mechanically cycled. All specimens were sectioned into slices of 1.8 mm for the push-out test and 0.5 mm for analysis of the cement layer quality.
Results: The insertion technique affected the interaction between factors (bond strength and mechanical cycling; p < 0.0001). Insertion of the Centrix syringe after mechanical cycling showed the highest bond values (13.6 ± 3.2 MPa). Group-to-group comparisons for baseline and cycled conditions indicated that mechanical cycling significantly influenced the bond strength (p < 0.0001) of the POS and CEN groups. The quality of the cement layer did not differ between the techniques when evaluated in the middle (p = 0.0612) and cervical (p = 0.1119) regions, but did differ in the apical region (p = 0.0097), where the CEN group had better layer quality for the two conditions tested (baseline and cycled).
Conclusion: The use of the Centrix syringe improved the homogeneity of the cement layer, reducing the defects in the layer and increasing adhesive strength values to dentin, even after mechanical cycling.
Keywords: fiber post, cement layer, interface, adhesion, retention, mechanical loading, fatigue
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34057, PubMed ID (PMID): 25893225Pages 181-188, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different radiant exposure values delivered to two simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive systems on push-out bond strength (PBS) of fiber posts to root canal, as well as nanoleakage (NL) and in situ degree of conversion (DC) within the hybrid layer.
Materials and Methods: The roots of human premolars were endodontically prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the combination of the main factors adhesive/resin cement (2 commercial brands) and radiant exposure (4, 16, 48, and 288 J/cm2). The posts were cemented and the PBS tested at 0.5 mm/min (n = 7). The NL (n = 3) was evaluated using SEM after immersion of specimens in 50% silver nitrate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was performed to determine the in situ DC (n = 2). Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (5%).
Results: PBS (MPa) showed a significant difference only for the middle third when an increase in radiant exposure from 4 to 16 J/cm2 or higher was used (p < 0.05). The NL (%) decreased significantly with increasing radiant exposure from 48 to 288 J/cm2 in the middle and apical thirds when compared to lower radiant exposure (p < 0.05). The radiant exposure of 288 J/cm2 significantly increased the DC (%) in the middle and apical thirds, compared the other radiant exposure values (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The increase in radiant exposure delivered to the cervical third of root canals during post cementation improved the adhesive performance of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in the apical and middle thirds.
Keywords: push-out bond strength, silver nitrate, degree of conversion, fiber posts, root dentin
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34174, PubMed ID (PMID): 25969841Pages 189, Language: English
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a34175, PubMed ID (PMID): 25969842Pages 189-190, Language: English