DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29842, PubMed ID (PMID): 23757452Pages 203, Language: English
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29717, PubMed ID (PMID): 23700578Pages 207-210, Language: English
Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of different surface conditioning protocols on the repair strength of resin composite to the zirconia core / veneering ceramic complex, simulating the clinical chipping phenomenon.
Materials and Methods: Forty disk-shaped zirconia core (Lava Zirconia, 3M ESPE) (diameter: 3 mm) specimens were veneered circumferentially with a feldspathic veneering ceramic (VM7, Vita Zahnfabrik) (thickness: 2 mm) using a split metal mold. They were then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic with the bonding surfaces exposed. Specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following surface conditioning protocols (n = 10 per group): group 1, veneer: 4% hydrofluoric acid (HF) (Porcelain Etch) + core: aluminum trioxide (50-µm Al2O3) + core + veneer: silane (ESPE-Sil); group 2: core: Al2O3 (50 µm) + veneer: HF + core + veneer: silane; group 3: veneer: HF + core: 30 µm aluminum trioxide particles coated with silica (30 µm SiO2) + core + veneer: silane; group 4: core: 30 µm SiO2 + veneer: HF + core + veneer: silane. Core and veneer ceramic were conditioned individually but no attempt was made to avoid cross contamination of conditioning, simulating the clinical intraoral repair situation. Adhesive resin (VisioBond) was applied to both the core and the veneer ceramic, and resin composite (Quadrant Posterior) was bonded onto both substrates using polyethylene molds and photopolymerized. After thermocycling (6000 cycles, 5°C-55°C), the specimens were subjected to shear bond testing using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure modes were identified using an optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope images were obtained. Bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Bonferroni Holm correction (α = 0.05).
Results: Group 3 demonstrated significantly higher values (MPa) (8.6 ± 2.7) than those of the other groups (3.2 ± 3.1, 3.2 ± 3, and 3.1 ± 3.5 for groups 1, 2, and 4, respectively) (p < 0.001). All groups showed exclusively adhesive failure between the repair resin and the core zirconia. The incidence of cohesive failure in the ceramic was highest in group 3 (8 out of 10) compared to the other groups (0/10, 2/10, and 2/10, in groups 1, 2, and 4, respectively). SEM images showed that air abrasion on the zirconia core only also impinged on the veneering ceramic where the etching pattern was affected.
Conclusion: Etching the veneer ceramic with HF gel and silica coating of the zirconia core followed by silanization of both substrates could be advised for the repair of the zirconia core / veneering ceramic complex.
Keywords: adhesion, all-ceramics, bond strength, chipping, composite resin, repair, surface conditioning, zirconia
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29718, PubMed ID (PMID): 23700579Pages 211-214, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of nozzle distance, nozzle angle, and deposition duration on the silica content attained on zirconia by air abrasion.
Materials and Methods: Disk-shaped zirconia (LAVA, 3M ESPE) (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) specimens (N = 54) were obtained. They were wet-ground finished using 600-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicone carbide abrasive papers in sequence and ultrasonically cleaned. The specimens were mounted in a specially designed apparatus that allowed the chairside air-abrasion device to be operated under standard conditions. Alumina-coated silica particles (CoJet Sand, 3M ESPE) were deposited on the zirconia disk surfaces varying the following parameters: a) nozzle distance (2, 5, 10 mm), and b) deposition duration (5, 13, 20 s) at two nozzle angles (45 and 90 degrees) under 2.5 bar pressure at three locations on each ceramic disk. The specimen surfaces were then gently air dried for 20 s. Silica content in weight percentage (wt%) was measured from 3 surfaces on each disk using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) (150X) in an area of 0.8 mm x 0.6 mm (n = 3 per group). Surface topographies were evaluated using SEM. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05).
Results: Nozzle angle (p = 0.003) and deposition duration (p = 0.03) significantly affected the results, but nozzle distance (p = 0.569) did not. A significantly higher amount of silica (wt%) was achieved when the nozzle angle was 45 degrees to the surface in all distance-duration combinations (16.7 to 28.2 wt%) compared to the 90-degree nozzle angle (10.7 to 18.6 wt%) (p < 0.001). The silica amount was significantly higher after 20-s deposition duration than after 13 s (p < 0.05). EDS analysis demonstrated not only Si but also Al, Zr, and O traces on the substrate. SEM images indicated that deposition at a nozzle distance of 2 mm often created cavitations in zirconia.
Conclusion: Effective silica deposition using a charside air-abrasion device can be achieved when the nozzle is held at 45 degrees to the surface with more than 2-mm nozzle distance for 20 s.
Keywords: airborne particle abrasion, silica coating, surface conditioning, zirconia
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29587, PubMed ID (PMID): 23593640Pages 215-220, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the fracture strength of three different types of tooth preparation design for ceramic veneers and determine whether there is any correlation between the preparation performed and the type of failure observed, by means of a meta-analysis of published in vitro studies.
Materials and Methods: Three databases were consulted to select the studies, considering previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data extracted were submitted to statistical analysis by means of the software Review Manager 5.1, using the random effect statistical model with a confidence interval of 95%.
Results: The results showed a decrease in mean dental fracture strength of 76.53 N in teeth with feathered incisal edge preparations, and 102.82 N for those with palatal chamfers when compared with nonprepared teeth, whereas the preparation with a butt joint showed no significant difference compared to nonprepared teeth (p = 0.37). Ceramic fractures occurred more frequently in the chamfer type than feathered incisal edge design.
Conclusion: The butt joint is the type of preparation that least affects the strength of the tooth and the chamfer preparation type is more susceptible to ceramic fractures.
Keywords: meta-analysis, dental veneers, tooth preparation, dental porcelain, dental esthetics, porcelain laminate veneer, survival rate
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29531, PubMed ID (PMID): 23560256Pages 221-227, Language: English
Purpose: To examine the influence of 11.5% polyacrylic acid pretreatment on the interface and bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements (Maxcem Elite, RelyX Unicem, SeT) to dentin.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-six third molars were randomly divided into seven groups: RelyX ARC as control (ARC), RelyX Unicem (RLXU), Maxcem Elite (MCE), SeT (ST), polyacrylic acid+RelyX Unicem (RLXU-P), polyacrylic acid+Maxcem Elite (MCE-P), and polyacrylic acid+SeT (ST-P). Resin composite blocks were luted to flat dentin. After storage in distilled water for 24 h, sticks with a cross-sectional area of ca 0.80 mm2 were obtained (n = 24 per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two sets from each group were sectioned mesiodistally in the center of the crown and observed with a scanning electron microscope at 4000X magnification.
Results: The mean results of the µTBS test (MPa) followed by the same letter do not differ statistically significantly according to ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05): ARC = 24.19 (± 6.90)a, RLXU-P = 23.12 (± 6.18)a, MCE-P = 13.09 (± 5.87)b, RLXU = 10.23 (± 2.88)b,c, and MCE = 8.14 (± 4.63)c. All SeT specimens failed during the cutting procedure. The hybrid layer was not observed for the self-adhesive resin cements, and resin tags were observed for RelyX Unicem and Maxem Elite when dentin was pretreated with polyacrylic acid.
Conclusion: Pretreatment with 11.5% polyacrylic acid was effective for bonding RelyX Unicem and Maxcem Elite to dentin.
Keywords: dentin, bond strength, resin cement, polyacrylic acid, self-adhesive resin cement
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29530, PubMed ID (PMID): 23560255Pages 229-236, Language: English
Purpose: To compare a self-adhesive with two low-shrinkage and two regular flowable resin-based composites (RBCs) in terms of degree of conversion (DC) as well as micromechanical (indentation modulus [E]; Vickers hardness [HV]) and macromechanical properties (flexural strength [σ], modulus of elasticity [Eflexural]).
Materials and Methods: DC was investigated by an ATR-FTIR spectrometer at clinically relevant filling depths (0.1 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm bulk, 6 mm incremental) and irradiation times (10 s, 20 s, 40 s). Micro- and macromechanical properties were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter and a three-point bending test device after curing the specimens for 20 s and storing them in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Fillers were visualized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Results were evaluated using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation and a multivariate analysis (α = 0.05). A Weibull analysis was used to assess σ.
Results: N'Durance Dimer flow (65.66%) reached the highest DC (at 2 mm depth, 20 s irradiation). In terms of macromechanical properties, EcuSphere-Flow (129.82 MPa) for σ and Synergy D6 Flow (3.74 GPa) for Eflexural reached the highest values. The highest micromechanical properties were measured for the self-adhesive RBC (Vertise Flow; E = 10.81 GPa, HV = 60.20 N/mm2). Reliability was highly influenced by filler weight (η2 = 0.77) and volume (η2 = 0.99) proportion.
Conclusion: In the present study, the self-adhesive RBC showed the highest reliability, highest DC (together with one of the low-shrinkage RBCs), and highest micromechanical properties as well as good macromechanical properties. Moreover, a curing time of 40 s and an incremental thickness not exceeding 2 mm appeared to be necessary for such results.
Keywords: self-adhesive flowable composites, degree of cure, mechanical properties
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a28623, PubMed ID (PMID): 23534012Pages 237-243, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effect of composite type and cavity size on gap and void formation using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Materials and Methods: Class I cavities of two depths (2 mm or 4 mm; 4 mm diameter) were prepared, treated with Tri-S Bond (Kuraray Medical), and bulk filled with either Surefil SDR Flow (SF; Dentsply) or Clearfil Majesty LV (MJ; Kuraray Medical) to form four groups. After 24 h, the specimens were 3D scanned using swept-source OCT (Santec) with 1310 nm laser at a 20 kHz sweep rate. In OCT tomograms, the bonding interface and the bulk of the restorations were evaluated. The percentage values of sealed interfaces (SP) and void volume (VP) for all groups were calculated and statistically analyzed using two- and one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. Selected specimens were cross sectioned and observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope to confirm OCT findings.
Results: The following values were obtained for SP and VP, respectively: SF-2mm: 92% and 0.08%; SF-4mm: 66% and 0.13%; MJ-2mm: 86% and 1.79%; MJ-4mm: 33% and 1.96%. Both composites showed a significant increase in gap formation at 4-mm cavity depth (p < 0.001). While SF showed a rather homogeneous bulk compared to MJ, cavity depth did not significantly affect the void volume fraction (p = 0.08).
Conclusion: The flowable composite with SDR (stress-decreasing resin) technology performed better than the conventional composite; however, bulk filling a 4-mm-deep cavity will compromise the sealing of the bonding interface regardless of the type of composite. OCT is a unique method of characterizing materials and their behaviors nondestructively and precisely.
Keywords: void, gap, flowable resin composite, OCT, SDR
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a28603, PubMed ID (PMID): 23534010Pages 245-250, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the relation between the linear displacement (LD), shrinkage force (SF) and marginal adaptation of a methacrylate- and a silorane-based composite.
Materials and Methods: The LD and SF of 8 samples made of Filtek Supreme XT (methacrylate-based composite) and Filtek Silorane (silorane-based composite) were measured for 180 s from the start of polymerization. Large bulk-filled Class I cavities were restored with both resin composites, and two C-factors were simulated by applying the same adhesive system in different ways: the Silorane System Adhesive (SSA) was applied on enamel and dentin (C-factor 3.5) or only on enamel margins (C-factor of 0.4). Percentages of continuous margins (%CM) were quantitatively assessed with SEM before and after simultaneously loading with 1.2 million mechanical occlusal cycles (49 N; 1.7 Hz) and 3000 thermal cycles (5°C to 50°C) under dentinal fluid simulation.
Results: Significantly lower scores of LD and SF were observed for Filtek Silorane (LD: 12.0 µm ± 1.3, SF: 13.7 N ± 1.0) than for Filtek Supreme XT (LD: 25.0 µm ± 0.6, SF: 36.3 N ± 2.9). Both variables, ie, composite type and C-factor, had a significant effect on marginal adaptation (p < 0.05). In the groups with high C-factor (SSA was applied on the entire cavity surface) percent of continuous margin (%CM) (mean ± SD) before and after loading, respectively, was 24.4 ± 16.6 and 2.1 ± 2.4 for Filtek Supreme XT, and 58.8 ± 9.9 and 35.4 ± 4.1 for Filtek Silorane. When adhesion was confined to enamel margins (lower C-factor), %CM before and after loading, respectively, increased to 76.1 ± 9.6 and 64.2 ± 11.5 for Filtek Supreme XT, and 96.6 ± 1.7 and 94.2 ± 2.1 for Filtek Silorane.
Conclusions: The silorane-based composite exhibited significantly lower shrinkage forces and better marginal adaptation than did the methacrylate-based composite.
Keywords: marginal adaptation, silorane, polymerization shrinkage, C-factor
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29014, PubMed ID (PMID): 23534030Pages 251-258, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants in vitro.
Materials and Methods: Twenty bovine incisors received 4 different sealant treatments and were divided into four groups: 1. Ultraseal XT plus (UX); 2. Enamel Loc (EL); 3. 35% phosphoric acid plus Enamel Loc (PEL); 4. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro (PPC). Beam-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into three subgroups. One subgroup underwent the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test after 24-h storage in 37°C water. The other two subgroups were also subjected to the microtensile bond strength test after 5000 and 10,000 thermal cycles, respectively. Another twelve intact human third molars were sealed using 1 of 3 methods and were divided into 3 groups of 4 each: 1. Ultraseal XT plus; 2. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro; and 3. Enamel Loc. Two specimens from each group were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 h, followed by exposure to fluorescent light for 8 h, before being scanned in a micro-CT (microcomputer tomography) machine. The other two were handled in the same way after undergoing 10,000 thermal cycles. The CT images obtained were evaluated.
Results: All samples from the EL group were broken during preparation, so no µTBS results were available. After 5000 thermal cycles, the bond strengths of the three other groups (UX, PEL, PPC) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Longer thermocycling (10,000 cycles) resulted in more decreases in µTBS for group PEL and PPC, while the strength of the UX group remained relatively unchanged. After thermocycling, considerable silver penetration could be seen at the sealant/enamel interface of the EL group in micro-CT images.
Conclusions: The etch-and-rinse procedure for sealant application promotes higher bond strength under artificial aging. Micro-CT, a nondestructive analytical tool, may be used to evaluate the sealant/enamel interface effectively.
Keywords: microtensile, micro-CT, microleakage, nondestructive, sealant/enamel interface
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a28729, PubMed ID (PMID): 23653899Pages 259-267, Language: English
Purpose: To compare the shear bond strengths (SBS) of two cements to two Y-TZP ceramics subjected to different surface treatments.
Materials and Methods: Zirconia specimens were made from Lava (n = 36) and IPS e.max ZirCAD (n = 36), and their surfaces were treated as follows: no treatment (control), silica coating with 30-µm silica-modified alumina (Al2O3) particles (CoJet Sand), or coating with liners Lava Ceram for Lava and Intensive ZirLiner for IPS e.max ZirCAD. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to zirconia with Panavia F or RelyX Unicem resin cements. All specimens were thermocycled (6000 cycles at 5°C/55°C) and subjected to SBS testing. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's (HSD) post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Failure mode was analyzed by stereomicroscope and SEM.
Results: CoJet Sand and liners promoted significantly higher SBS than their control groups, but had similar results to one another. Panavia F provided significantly higher SBS values than RelyX Unicem (p < 0.01) for nontreated zirconia specimens of both brands. When Lava and IPS e.max ZirCAD were abraded with CoJet Sand, RelyX Unicem promoted significantly higher SBS values than Panavia F (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two cements when the zirconia specimens were treated with their respective liners. The nontreated specimens and those treated with CoJet Sand exhibited a high percentage of adhesive and mixed A failures, while the specimens treated with liners presented an increase in mixed A and mixed C failures as well as some cohesive failure in the bulk of Lava Ceram for both cements.
Conclusion: CoJet Sand and liners provided the best surface treatment for Lava and IPS e.max ZirCAD. The best surface treatment/cement combinations were CoJet Sand/RelyX Unicem and liner/Panavia F. SBS of Panavia F and RelyX Unicem was not influenced by the zirconia brand.
Keywords: zirconia, air abrasion, silica coating, resin cements, bonding, ceramic liner
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a28881, PubMed ID (PMID): 23534023Pages 269-274, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of different glass-fiber post surface treatments on the bond strength to root dentin.
Materials and Methods: Fifty bovine incisors were used in this study. After removing the crowns, the teeth were endodontically treated. The roots were randomly divided into five groups according to post surface treatment. The groups were as follows: CO (Control) - no treatment; G1 - RelyX Ceramic Primer (silane) only; G2 - silane and Solobond M; G3 - silane and Scotchbond Adhesive; G4 - silane and Excite. For post cementation, RelyX Unicem was used according to the manufacturer's recommendation and the roots were stored in a light-proof container with 100% relative humidity for 24 h. The specimens were transversally sectioned. Subsequently, the cervical, middle, and apical regions of the root were positioned in a push-out device and tested at 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine (Instron). The data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. The fractured specimens were then observed under a stereoscopic loupe at 60X magnification.
Results: No significant difference in bond strength was found among the groups that received a silane or silane plus an adhesive system (p > 0.05). However, the CO (no silane) showed the lowest bond strength. Regarding G1, G2, G3, and G4, the cervical region of the root canal attained better bond strengths than did the middle or apical regions. The most frequent failure mode occurred at the cement/dentin interface.
Conclusion: Silane application may be necessary to improve the adhesion of fiber posts luted with the self-adhesive resin cement evaluated here. The application of an adhesive layer between the fiber post and resin cement did not have any influence on the bond strength when the silane coupling was previously used.
Keywords: bond strength, fiber post, push-out, resin cements
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29633, PubMed ID (PMID): 23653901Pages 275-286, Language: English
Purpose: To assess the one-step self-etching adhesive iBond Gluma inside (1-SE) and the two-step etch-andrinse adhesive Gluma Comfort Bond (2-ER), both used in combination with the fine particle hybrid composite Venus, in a laboratory and in a prospective clinical study.
Materials and Methods: In the in vitro study, tooth-composite interaction, microleakage, and adhesive failure of 8 Class V restorations per system were evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. In the in vivo study, 90 paired Class III/IV restorations were scored over 48 months (modified USPHS criteria). Cumulative failure rates (CFR) were calculated.
Results: In vitro, microleakage and adhesive failure at enamel margins were significantly increased with 1-SE in comparison with 2-ER. With 1-SE, micromechanical interlocking at enamel was reduced and pores within the adhesive layer arose. In vivo, after 48 months with 1-SE, decreased marginal integrity and an increased number of dark marginal color lines were observed.
Conclusion: Because the results of the 4-year clinical study showed lower esthetics and marginal integrity for the 1-SE adhesive, its use should be viewed critically, which is in line with the reduced enamel-adhesive-composite interaction found in vitro.
Keywords: dental adhesive, composite, in vitro test, tooth-composite interface, in vivo test
DOI: 10.3290/j.jad.a29533, PubMed ID (PMID): 23560258Pages 287-292, Language: English
Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) does not affect the 18-month clinical performance of two dentin adhesives, XP Bond (XPB) and XENO V (XEN).
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 noncarious cervical lesions (NCCL) were selected and assigned to 4 groups: (1) XPB; (2) CHX prior to the application of XPB; (3) XEN; (4) CHX prior to the application of XEN. A hybrid composite resin, Esthet•X, was used for all restorations. Restorations were evaluated blindly at 6 and 18 months by two evaluators using the University of North Carolina (UNC)-modified USPHS criteria. Statistical analyses included the Mann Whitney and McNemar nonparametric tests (p < 0.05).
Results: At 6 months, 91 (75.2%) restorations were evaluated, while 92 (76.7%) restorations were evaluated at 18 months. The 6-month/18-month overall retention rates (%) were 100/100 for XPB, 96.0/95.0 for CHX+XPB, 100/91.3 for XEN, and 100/95.8 for CHX+XEN with no statistical difference between any pair of groups at each recall. Sensitivity to air improved significantly for groups XPB, XEN, and CHX+XEN from pre-operative conditions to 1 week after insertion, to 6 and to 18 months after inserting. For group CHX+XPB, there was a statistically significant difference only between pre-operative conditions and 1 week after insertion. Marginal adaptation deteriorated for all groups, but no statistically significant differences were found. All other criteria remained statistically similar.
Conclusion: The application of CHX prior to the dentin adhesive did not influence the 6-month/18-month clinical performance of the two adhesives.
Keywords: chlorhexidine, self-etching adhesives, etch-and-rinse adhesive, clinical trial, noncarious cervical lesions