Purpose: Grape-seed extract (GSE) contains polyphenols that readily adhere to proteins and modify the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP). The first step in biofilm formation is bacterial adhesion to the AEP-covered enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to test whether AEP modification with GSE, fluoride (F-), or their combination (GSE+F-) modulates bacterial adhesion, biofilm metabolism and composition, or cariogenic demineralisation of the enamel.
Keywords: biofilms, caries, dental pellicle, enamel, fluoride, grape-seed extract, pellicle modification
Materials and Methods: The study comprised 3 parts: 1) single-strain Streptococcus gordonii species, 2) a five-species biofilm model, or 3) biofilm (re-)formation using the five-species biofilm model after removal of initial biofilm with toothbrushing. Human whole-mouth stimulated saliva was used to form an AEP on human enamel specimens. The AEP was incubated in water (control), or modified with GSE, F-, or GSE+F-. Bacterial adhesion, biofilm diversity, metabolic activity, biofilm mass, and cariogenic demineralisation (surface hardness) of enamel were assessed after incubation in bacterial broths after 4 h or 22 h. Differences between groups were analysed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni tests.
Results: GSE and GSE+F- statistically significantly decreased single-strain S. gordonii adhesion, but had no relevant influence when the five-species biofilm model was used. In the biofilm (re-)formation model, GSE reduced bacterial adhesion compared to GSE+F-, while F- caused less cariogenic demineralisation than was found in the control group.
Conclusion: AEP modified with GSE retards S. gordonii adhesion, but it does not influence the formation, metabolism and composition of a cariogenic multi-species biofilm.