Keywords: chlorhexidine, implants, laser, ozone, titanium, ultrasonic
Purpose: To assess the effects of grade IV titanium ultrasonic tip instrumentation on different grade IV titanium implant surfaces and compare the decontamination of different implant surfaces using chlorhexidine, blue laser, or ozone.
Materials and methods: Profilometry and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed on smooth, laser-micropatterned, and sandblasted grade IV titanium sample disks before (t0) and after (t1) ultrasonic instrumentation with an ultrasonic grade IV titanium tip. Samples were also incubated with a Streptococcus sanguinis culture. Each surface type was then treated with chlorhexidine, blue laser, or ozone (three test groups + control group). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were taken after bacterial growth and after decontamination.
Results: After ultrasonic instrumentation, surface roughness (Ra) decreased on sandblasted and micropatterned surfaces, whereas it remained substantially unvaried on the smooth surface. SEM images revealed that the laser-micropatterned structure remained substantially unvaried after instrumentation. EDS revealed a minimal quantity of carbon and iron, found in the laser-treated and sandblasted group at t0. A minimal quantity of aluminum and oxygen was found on the sandblasted surface at t0 and t1. Ozone therapy achieved the highest decontaminating effect, regardless of implant surface topography.
Conclusion: Among the alternative therapies to ultrasonic instrumentation with titanium tips, ozone appears to be effective regardless of the type of implant surface; it can be used for the decontamination treatment of implants without altering the surface structure.