Purpose: The pretreatment of glass-ceramic before adhesive cementation can be performed with hydrofluoric acid (HF)/silanization (S) or with an ammonium polyfluoride-containing primer (APF). It can be modified by application of a silane-containing universal adhesive (UA) and/or additional silanization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of composite cements to two different glass ceramics after different pretreatments and aging.
Keywords: Monobond Etch & Prime, ammoniumpolyfluoride, hydrofluoric acid, universal adhesive, silane, glass ceramic, microtensile bond strength test
Materials and Methods: Disks of leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic or lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic were pretreated with HF+S, HF+UA, HF+S+UA, APF, or APF+S, bonded in pairs with composite cement and sectioned into microsticks (n = 96/group). The microtensile bond strength was determined either after 24 h (n = 48) or after aging for 6 months in water (n = 48). Fracture patterns were analyzed at 50X magnification. Statistical evaluation was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni’s correction, and the chi-squared test (p < 0.05).
Results: Pretreatment with HF+UA or APF led to significantly lower bond strength compared to HF+S. Additional silanization after application of UA or APF resulted in a significant increase in bond strength. After aging, HF+UA groups showed significantly lower bond strengths, independent of additive silanization. Aging did not affect APF-pretreated leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic; for lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic, the bond strength dropped significantly. Additional silanization improved aging resistance for the respective groups.
Conclusion: Bond strength and its long-term stability depend on the ceramic used and on the pretreatment. An ammonium polyfluoride-containing primer seems to be a promising option compared to conventional pretreatment with hydrofluoric acid. Additive silanization improves the long-term stability of the microtensile bond strength.