Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether treatment of gingivitis in pregnant women affects pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: birth weight, gingivitis, gingivitis treatment, preterm, randomised controlled trials
Materials and Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials using PRISMA guidelines to appraise the treatment of gingivitis on pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (less than 37 weeks), low birth weight (less than 2,500 g), gestational age and birth weight. Pooled odds ratios (OR), mean difference, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. A search was conducted in databases including Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Embase without restrictions regarding language or date of publication.
Results: Three clinical trials comprising 1,031 participants were included in this review. Treatment of gingivitis during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.20–0.98], P = 0.045) and higher birth weight (weighted mean difference (WMD) =105.36 g, 95% CI [36.72–174.01], P = 0.003). Gestational age at birth in the treatment group (WMD = 0.31 weeks, 95% CI [–0.02–0.64], P = 0.64) as well as likelihood of low birth weight (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.38–2.21], P = 0.851) did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that treatment of gingivitis in pregnancy may improve pregnancy outcomes including increased infants birth weight and reduced preterm births. Future trials are warranted to validate the true effect size of gingivitis treatment on pregnancy outcomes.