Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of incorporating different concentrations of biosilicate in an experimental self-etch adhesive (SE).
Keywords: degree of conversion, wettability, bond strength, bioactive glass-ceramic, self-etch adhesive
Materials and Methods: Biosilicate microparticles (0, 2, 5, and 10 wt%) were incorporated into the primer, and degree of conversion (DC) and wettability were tested (one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s test, p < 0.05). The two best concentrations were selected (2% and 5%) for µTBS evaluation. Sound human molars (n=20) were sectioned into quarters and randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: 1. experimental SE + 0% biosilicate (Exp0%; negative control); 2. experimental SE + 2% biosilicate (Exp2%); 3. experimental SE + 5% biosilicate (Exp5%); 4. AdheSE (Ivoclar Vivadent, positive control). After adhesive application, Filtek Z350 (3M Oral Care) composite was built up incrementally to 5 mm. Each quarter tooth was sectioned into sticks (0.9 mm2) and stored in distilled water (37°C) for 24 h, 6 months, or 1 year. After storage, sticks were submitted to µTBS (0.75 mm/min). The Ca:P ratio was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s correction, with statistical siginificance set at p < 0.05. Fracture patterns were observed under a digital microscope and adhesive interfaces with transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Results: Exp2% presented the highest DC (p < 0.05), Exp5% exhibited the lowest µTBS (p < 0.05), and adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. TEM suggested remineralized areas in Exp2% and to a lesser degree in Exp5%. Exp2% and Exp5% showed a higher Ca:P ratio after aging (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The incorporation of biosilicate microparticles can improve the properties of self-etch adhesives. It increased the DC of the experimental adhesive as well as mineral deposition. However, the adhesive properties are concentration dependent, as a higher concentration of microparticles can adversely affect the mechanical properties of an adhesive.