Keywords: antibiotics, dental implant, meta-analysis, peri-implantitis, systematic review
Purpose: This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of antibiotics when used as an adjunct in treating peri-implant diseases.
Materials and methods: A systematic search of papers published between January 1980 and March 2020 was conducted. Randomized clinical trials with at least 10 patients who had peri-implant diseases, treated with or without adjunctive antibiotics in combination with surgical or nonsurgical therapies, and with a minimum of at least 3 months of follow-up were included. Meta-analyses were conducted to analyze weighted mean differences in probing depth reduction, radiographic bone level gain, and odds ratio of treatment success.
Results: From the 856 articles identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Of these, 7 articles were used for the meta-analysis. The adjunctive use of antibiotics in the treatment of peri-implant diseases yielded significantly greater probing depth reduction (weighted mean differences = 0.56 mm at 3 months, P = .001; 0.77 mm at 6 months, P < .00001; 0.92 mm at 12 months, P < .00001), radiographic bone level gain (weighted mean differences = 0.64 mm, P = .03), and treatment success (odds ratio = 1.74, P = .04) compared to the same treatment without antibiotics.
Conclusion: Based on the existing evidence, the use of adjunctive antibiotics to treat peri-implant diseases, especially peri-implantitis, provided potential benefits in clinical outcomes for up to 12 months posttherapy.