The goal of this overview was to systematically verify the best available literature on surgical and nonsurgical treatments of peri-implantitis to determine evidence-based treatment protocols for peri-implantitis. Three databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library/Evidence) were searched by two independent reviewers, including systematic reviews (SRs) that involved randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search was limited to articles between January 2014 to January 2021 with an English language restriction. In total, 437 articles were initially found, of which only 34 were selected for full-text reading. Nine SRs were included in this study, enrolling 59 different RCTs. Some studies investigated both surgical and nonsurgical techniques, while others focused on only one approach or the other. In total, six of the studies included nonsurgical techniques, and eight included surgical techniques (ie, augmentative, regenerative, and corrective/resective techniques). Nonsurgical interventions appeared to offer some degree of clinical improvements, especially in bleeding on probing levels, but they were not enough to fully treat peri-implantitis. Whereas surgical techniques seemed to be more effective in improving overall clinical parameters, especially probing depth, bleeding on probing, and to some extent, marginal bone level, no specific surgical technique or material (graft or membrane) had a clear advantage over others. Therefore, resective surgical and implantoplasty techniques demonstrated significant improvements in clinical parameters. Although surgical interventions are more indicated to treat peri-implantitis than nonsurgical procedures, the predictability is still a concern due to titanium particles scattered within the local tissue.
Keywords: nonsurgical, outcomes, peri-implantitis, surgical, systematic review, treatment