The purpose of this study was to review the impact of loss of teeth and the current state of treatment options available for oral rehabilitation of edentulism. Function with complete dental prostheses varies based on a patient’s ability to adapt to removable prostheses and their psychologic acceptance of the treatment. There is varying dissatisfaction with removable prostheses, particularly in Western economies. This is driven in part by the availability of oral implants, which have transformed the treatment options for oral rehabilitation in general and for edentulous rehabilitation in particular. Quality-of-life studies have confirmed the advantages of implants for the retention and support of dental prostheses, as they improve function and esthetic measures to nearly those of the dentate state. Osseoperception, the concept of feedback to the sensorimotor system from tissues surrounding osseointegrated implants, contributes to enhanced function with implant treatment. It is recognized that tooth loss resulting in the loss of periodontal mechanoreceptors has a detrimental effect on jaw motor control even after implant treatment. However, despite this limitation, oral rehabilitation with or without implants, which improves function and esthetics, helps maintain psychosocial and cognitive health.