Purpose: To evaluate the effect of bovine milk and yogurt on selected oral microorganisms and different oral biofilms.
Keywords: Candida, caries, milk products, oral bacteria, periodontitis
Materials and Methods: Milk was prepared from 0.5% fat (low-fat) and 16% fat (high fat) milk powder. For yogurt preparation, the strains Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgarcius and Streptococcus thermophilus were added to the milk. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal microbiocidal concentrations (MMC) of the test compounds were measured against various microorganisms by the microbroth dilution technique. Cariogenic periodontal biofilms and one containing Candida were created on plastic surfaces coated with test substances. Further, preformed biofilms were exposed to the test substances at a concentration of 100% for 10 min and thereafter 10% for 50 min. Both colony forming units (cfu) and metabolic activity were quantified in the biofilms.
Results: Neither high-fat milk, low-fat milk nor casein inhibited the growth of any species. Yogurt and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus at low MIC and MMC suppressed the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and other bacteria associated with periodontal disease. High-fat yogurt decreased cfu in the forming periodontal biofilm by 90%. Both low- and high-fat yogurts reduced metabolic activity in newly forming and preformed periodontal and Candida biofilms, but not in the cariogenic biofilm.
Conclusions: Yogurt and L. delbru eckii ssp. bulgaricus, but not milk, were bactericidal against periodontopathogenic bacteria. Yoghurt reduced the metabolic activity of a Candida biofilm and a periodontal biofilm. Yogurt and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus may have potential in prevention and therapy of periodontal diseases and Candida infections.