Purpose: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of identical experimental toothpastes with different stannous sources.
Keywords: antimicrobial, biofilm, caries, stannous chloride, stannous fluoride, toothpaste
Materials and Methods:Streptococcus mutans biofilms were grown on protein-coated glass disks in static conditions for 24 h and thereafter exposed to toothpaste slurries or physiological saline (negative control; n = 15) for 30 s. Four experimental toothpastes were applied in this study, containing either stannous chloride (SnCl2; B: 3500 ppm Sn2+, and D: 3600 ppm Sn2+) or stannous fluoride (SnF2; C: 3500 ppm Sn2+, and E: 3600 ppm Sn2+). Marketed toothpaste meridol® (A: 3300 ppm SnF2) served as control. All five toothpastes contained amine fluoride (AmF). The biofilms were placed on agar surface and their metabolic activity was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry over 96 h. The heat flow data was analysed for growth rate and lag time using grofit package in software R. Additionally, reduction of active biofilm compared to untreated control was calculated.
Results: All toothpastes significantly prolong the lag time of treated biofilms in comparison to negative control (p < 0.05). Toothpastes containing SnF2 (C and E) prolonged the lag time statistically significantly compared to toothpastes containing SnCl2 (B and D) (p < 0.05). The maximum growth rate was statistically significantly reduced by all tested toothpastes compared to the untreated control group (p < 0.05). Toothpastes containing SnF2 (A, C and E) reached 59.9 ± 7.8, 61.9 ± 7.7, and 55.6 ± 7.0% reduction of active biofilm, respectively. Thus, they exhibit statistically significantly better results than toothpastes B (52.9 ± 9.9%) and D (44.7 ± 7.6%). Toothpaste D, which contains a slightly higher concentration of Sn2+, was the least effective in reducing active biofilm.
Conclusion: The toothpastes containing SnF2 combined with AmF had the highest antimicrobial efficacy in this study.