SupplementPubMed ID (PMID): 27314114Pages 89-106, Language: English
Aim: The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the impact of immediate implant placement and restoration (IIPR) on hard and soft tissues and to identify clinical parameters which influence the outcome.
Materials and methods: An electronic search of the PubMed database was performed from January 2000 to September 2015. A further hand search was conducted in selected journals and only abstracts published in English were considered for review. Human clinical trials with at least 10 participants and which reported hard and soft tissue outcomes were assessed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), prospective, prospective comparative and retrospective studies were considered. The effects of the following clinical parameters on hard and soft tissue outcomes were analysed: type of implant, primary stability, gingival biotype, flapless surgery, tooth extraction, spatial arrangement of the implant, socket grafting, the gap between implant surface and alveolar wall and the loading protocol.
Results: 17 studies (four RCT, six prospective, two comparative prospective, three controlled cohort and two retrospective studies) were included with 626 censored IIPR in 609 patients. A total of 411(65.56 %) implants were placed flapless vs 215 implants after raising a mucoperiosteal flap. Five studies defined raising a mucoperiostal flap as a mandatory part of the surgical protocol. The mean of the remaining gap in between the implant surface and the alveolar wall, the so-called "jump space", was reported for 170 implants ranging from 1.38 mm to 2.25 mm. Two hundred and one implant sites were not grafted, 405 were grafted, mostly with bone substitutes; for 20 no information was available. For 419 implants, a minimum insertion torque of ≥ 32 Ncm or an ISQ value of ≥ 60 was reached; for 53 implants an insertion torque of 25 Ncm was accepted. The implants were mostly placed palatinally of the jaw bone. The vertical position of the platform was reported either to be 0.5 to 1.0 mm below the vestibular bone crest or 3 to 4 mm apical to the adjacent cementoenamel junction of the neighbouring tooth. Post-insertion healing with a non-functional occlusion occurred for 97.8% of the implants. The final single crowns were inserted 3 to 6 months after implant placement. The IIPR resulted in a high success (97.96 %) and survival rate (98.25%) after a mean followup period of 31.2 months. The soft-tissue biotype was evaluated in 379 (60.5%) sites as thick. The mean crestal bone and the mean interproximal mucosa level changes were less than 1 mm compared to the baseline. The midfacial periimplant mucosal level change was less than 0.95 mm. This level was reached for both thin and thick soft-tissue biotypes, without a significant difference. Only in one study did the thin biotypes show a significantly higher recession.
Conclusion: The systematic review revealed promising results for immediately placed and immediately restored implants (IIPR) in the anterior maxilla. The possible options of flapless surgery and absence of grafting of the socket allows a minimal surgical intervention. However, a strict patient selection seemed mandatory for all included clinical trials.
Keywords: immediate implant placement, immediate implant restoration, peri-implant tissue remodelling, single-tooth replacement