Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum torque required to attach the transducer to the implant to measure the implant stability quotient (ISQ) with two different devices and to estimate if finger-generated torque would be reliable for this purpose.
Keywords: dental implants, implant stability quotient, in vitro technique, primary implant stability, resonance frequency analysis, transducer
Materials and Methods: One hundred implants were inserted into a uniform polyurethane block. The implants were distributed into 10 groups, with 10 implants each. The transducers were manually attached by a female operator (G female) and by a male operator (G male) using the standard connector provided by the manufacturers. For the remaining groups, the transducers were placed using a connector adapted to a digital torque wrench with different torque settings: 3 Ncm (G 3Ncm), 4 Ncm (G 4Ncm), 5 Ncm (G 5Ncm), 6 Ncm (G 6Ncm), 10 Ncm (G 10Ncm), 13 Ncm (G 13Ncm), 17 Ncm (G 17Ncm), and 20 Ncm (G 20Ncm). The stability was measured for all groups using both the Osstell and the Penguin resonance frequency analyzers. The minimum, medium, and maximum finger grip torque were accessed on 100 volunteers.
Results: For Osstell, the conjugated confidence intervals were homogenous for four groups (G 10Ncm, G 13Ncm, G 17Ncm, and G 20Ncm), and for Penguin, they were homogenous for six groups (G 5Ncm, G 6Ncm, G 10Ncm, G 13Ncm, G 17Ncm, and G 20Ncm). The minimum finger-generated force was 2.18 ± 1.05 Ncm, the medium force was 4.25 ± 1.57 Ncm, and the maximum force was 7.51 ± 2.52 Ncm, measuring with a digital torque meter.
Conclusion: For an accurate measurement of ISQ, the minimum torque necessary to insert the transducer into the implant for Osstell was 10 Ncm, while for Penguin, it was 5 Ncm. Therefore, when using Osstell to assess implant stability, the authors suggest the use of a torque wrench to ensure 10 Ncm of force is applied when tightening the transducer into the implant to obtain accurate stability measurements. When using Penguin, the maximum finger-generated tightening force is enough.