DOI: 10.11607/ofph.2022.2.ePages 80-81, Language: English
Pages 82-83, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3176Pages 85-102, Language: English
Aims: (1) To summarize current knowledge on the prevalence, intensity, and descriptors of orofacial pain and snoring/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment; and (2) to propose future directions for research.
Methods: The median prevalence for each condition was estimated from the most recent systematic reviews (SRs) and updated with new findings retrieved from the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to December 2021.
Results: The prevalence of HNC pain seems relatively stable over time, with a median of 31% before treatment in three studies to a median of 39% at 1 month to 16 years after treatment in six studies. HNC pain intensity remains mild to moderate. There was a threefold increase in temporomandibular pain prevalence after surgery (median 7.25% before to 21.3% after). The data for snoring prevalence are unreliable. The OSA/HNC prevalence seems relatively stable over time, with a median of 72% before treatment in three studies to 77% after treatment in 14 studies.
Conclusion: With the exception of temporomandibular pain, the prevalence of HNC pain and OSA seems to be stable over time. Future studies should: (1) compare the trajectory of change over time according to each treatment; (2) compare individuals with HNC to healthy subjects; (3) use a standardized and comparable method of data collection; and (4) assess tolerance to oral or breathing devices, since HNC individuals may have mucosal sensitivity or pain.
Keywords: head and neck cancer, orofacial pain, prevalence, sleep apnea, snoring
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3010Pages 103-140, Language: English
Aims: To explore the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and depression in adult patients with chronic orofacial pain (COFP) conditions.
Methods: A systematic online search of the Medline (PubMed) and Ovid databases was performed for articles published from 2006 to 2019. Observational studies- including cross-sectional, case-control, and case series-and longitudinal prospective studies were included. A total of 118 articles were selected for inclusion, and the prevalence rates of clinically significant anxiety and depression were summarized.
Results: Most studies focused on temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and less often on neuropathic COFP conditions. Prevalence rates varied widely across studies according to OFP condition and assessment measure; most questionnaire-based assessments yielded rates of clinically significant depression and anxiety in, respectively, 40% to 60% and 40% to 65% of individuals with TMD and in 20% to 50% and 25% to 55% of patients with neuropathic, mixed, or idiopathic/atypical COFP conditions. Rates of anxiety and depression were lower in studies using diagnostic instruments and in TMD studies with nonpatient samples. Most controlled studies showed a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in individuals with COFP than in those without. Higher COFP pain levels and the presence of comorbid conditions such as migraines or widespread pain increased the likelihood of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in individuals.
Conclusion: Clinically significant anxiety and depression were commonly observed in patients with COFP, were present at higher rates than in pain-free participants in controlled studies, and were closely linked to pain severity. More research is needed to evaluate the psychologic impact of multiple COFP conditions in an individual and the prevalence of precondition psychologic morbidity.
Keywords: anxiety, depression, neuropathic/nonneuropathic pain, orofacial pain, TMD
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3074Pages 141-146, Language: English
Aims: To compare the clinical effectiveness of conventional double-puncture vs single-puncture type 2 arthrocentesis for management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR) after 3 years of follow-up.
Methods: A total of 26 patients with DDWOR were randomly and blindly allocated into two treatment groups (n = 13 each): group 1 = conventional double-puncture arthrocentesis; group 2 = single-puncture type 2 arthrocentesis. Data on gender, side of painful joint complaint, age (years), duration of joint pain (months), maximum interincisal distance (MID, mm), and pain intensity (self-reported with a 0-10 visual analog scale [VAS]) were collected. VAS scores and MID were measured before (baseline) and 3 years after (final) the arthrocentesis.
Results: Twenty-three patients completed the study (group 1, n = 11; group 2, n = 12). Both techniques resulted in significantly reduced VAS scores and increased MID (P = .001) after the 3 years of follow-up; however, there were no statistically significant differences between techniques (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: The two arthrocentesis methods tested were both effective in reducing VAS scores and increasing MID in patients with DDWOR.
Keywords: arthrocentesis, disc displacement without reduction, temporomandibular joint disorders
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3011Pages 147-154, Language: English
Aims: To evaluate the anxiety of children and their mothers in relation to sleep bruxism (SB) and associated risk factors.
Methods: A total of 96 children (48 with and 48 without bruxism) and their mothers participated in this study. A form with comprehensive history and oral and parafunctional habits associated with SB was used. Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED) was used to measure anxiety in children. The anxiety levels of the mothers were evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). SPSS version 21.0 was used for the analyses. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical data. Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison of continuous data, and multiple logistic regression model was applied to detect the real factors associated with SB.
Results: The comparisons of SCARED total (P = .005), factor 3 (separation anxiety; P = .015), factor 4 (social anxiety; P = .011) and factor 5 (school fear; P = .005) showed significant differences between groups. State anxiety scores of the mothers were significantly higher in the bruxism group (P < .001). Statistically significant differences were seen for learning/behavioral/anger problems, mouth breathing, snoring, bad breath, parasitic infections, sleep difficulty, chewing a pen or pencil, and sleeping in their own room (P < .05). The real risk factors associated with SB were learning/behavioral/anger problems, an experience causing stress, snoring, and increased anxiety levels of mothers and children.
Conclusion: Elevated anxiety levels of mother or children, learning/behavioral/anger problems, experience causing stress, and snoring increased the risk of having SB in children.
Keywords: anxiety, bruxism, child, maternal
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.2944Pages 155-163, Language: English
Aims: To examine associations between fatigue and poor sleep quality, depression symptoms, and pain intensity in an adult population with chronic arthralgia/myalgia in the temporomandibular region and to test whether fatigue predicted future pain-related interference above and beyond these other constructs.
Methods: The sample included 40 participants with chronic arthralgia and/or myalgia in the temporomandibular region and 21 healthy controls. Participants self-reported fatigue (PROMIS fatigue score), sleep quality (PSQI), depression symptoms (PROMIS depression score), and average pain intensity and completed four weekly surveys of pain-related interference with daily activities.
Results: The chronic arthralgia/myalgia group reported greater fatigue than healthy controls (t = 4.85, P < .001). Fatigue was significantly correlated with poor sleep quality (r = .46), higher depression symptoms (r = .41), and higher pain intensity (r = .46) in the chronic arthralgia/myalgia group, and these three variables together explained 39% of variance in fatigue. Greater fatigue-above and beyond sleep quality, depression symptoms, and average pain intensity-was associated with a higher average level of pain-related interference (β = 0.56, t score = 3.30, P = .002) over the following month. Depression symptoms, poor sleep quality, and pain intensity did not significantly predict pain interference above and beyond fatigue (all P > .05).
Conclusion: The results suggest that fatigue is a clinically relevant symptom distinct from depression, poor sleep quality, or pain intensity and may be related to worse pain outcomes over the following month in adults with chronic temporomandibular arthralgia/myalgia. Clinicians should assess, monitor, and treat fatigue to the best of their abilities when working with this population.
Keywords: depression, fatigue, orofacial pain, PROMIS, sleep
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3027Pages 165-186, Language: English
Aims: To perform a scoping review of the literature to elucidate the occurrence of nerve damage related to dental implant placement and the factors causing the sensory changes.
Methods: An extensive electronic search was conducted using the Cochrane Library, Medline via Ovid, PubMed, Wiley Online, Science Direct, CINAHL, and the Google Scholar databases from the year 1950 to 2020.
Results: The search resulted in 1,067 articles, out of which 76 were selected for this review. The articles were categorized as literature review articles, retrospective studies, prospective studies, and case series/case reports. Altogether, 2,526 subjects were assessed retrospectively, with 5.27% transient and 1.39% persistent sensory changes, and a cohort of 2,750 subjects were followed prospectively, with 6.22% transient and 1.31% persistent sensory changes. A total of 336 subjects were enrolled in various case reports and case series, with 5.95% transient sensory changes and 84.52% persistent neurosensory changes. The articles included were not of high quality and have variations in their study designs and reporting procedures, with limited sensory change data to include in this study.
Conclusion: After surgical placement of dental implants in 5,612 patients, the incidence of transient sensory changes was 5.63%, and the incidence of persistent sensory changes was 6.33%. Factors affecting the incidence were: mandibular location of the implant, with the inferior alveolar nerve as the most commonly affected nerve. The common symptoms reported were paresthesia and dysesthesia. Age and gender were among other factors, for which data were not available in all the articles.
Keywords: dental implants, sensory changes, transient and permanent, trigeminal neuropathy