DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3470Pages 151-153, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.2023.3.arPages 155-157, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3187, PubMed ID (PMID): 37698952Pages 159-165, Language: English
Aims: To describe the development of the Physical Symptom Scale-8 (PSS-8) and to examine its psychometric properties and use in temporomandibular disorder (TMD)–related assessment and research. Methods: An online survey comprising demographic variables, the DC/TMD pain screener (TPS), Short-Form Fonseca Anamnestic Index (SFAI), PSS-8, PHQ-15, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) was administered to young adults attending a technical college. The PSS-8 adopted the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8) items but maintained the 3-point response scale and 4-week time frame of the PHQ-15. Internal consistency and reliability of the PSS-8 were determined by its Cronbach α value. Known-groups and concurrent/convergent validity were examined using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation (α = .05), respectively. Results: Responses from 400 participants (mean age 18.8 ± 1.5 years; 52.3% women) were evaluated. Pain-related (WPT) and all (WAT) TMDs were present in 8.5% and 17.3% of the sample, respectively. The PSS-8 exhibited good internal consistency (α = 0.82) and sound known-groups validity, with the WPT/WAT groups having significantly higher PSS-8 scores than those without TMDs. Good concurrent and convergent validity were also observed, with moderate to strong correlations with the PHQ-15 (rs = 0.97) and DASS-21 scores (rs = 0.48 to 0.60). Correlations with the TPS and SFAI scores were weaker (rs = 0.28 to 0.34). Conclusion: The PSS-8 presented good psychometric properties and performed similarly to the PHQ-15. It holds promise as the “de facto” shortened version of the PHQ-15 for TMDs and related work.
Keywords: pain measurement, reliability and validity, reproducibility of results, somatic symptoms, temporomandibular joint disorders
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3239Pages 167-176, Language: English
Aims: To assess changes in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and multiple biobehavioral variables relevant to TMDs in response to an external stressor. Methods: Self-reported data using online DC/TMD questionnaires were collected from volunteer dentistry graduate students. Data collection was performed on two occasions: during a non-exam period of the semester and during the subsequent exam period. Changes in the proportion of students with pain, differences in pain grade, and severity of biobehavioral status were measured and compared over the two periods. The association between severity of non-exam–period biobehavioral status and pain presence was also tested to assess whether biobehavioral variables can predict pain occurrence or persistence. Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 213 enrolled students, 102 remained after data reduction. In the non-exam period, the proportion of individuals with pain was 24.5%; in the exam period, the proportion was 54.9%, and more students had a higher pain grade. The severity of all biobehavioral variables was higher in the exam period, but there was no association between changes in the presence of pain and changes in biobehavioral variables. Higher anxiety and parafunction levels were found in those who reported pain on both occasions. Conclusion: Exam periods initiate readily measurable changes in the psychologic status of many students, as well as alterations in their temporomandibular pain. Higher levels of anxiety and oral behaviors during non-exam periods seem to be predictors for persisting pain.
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3260Pages 177-193, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in TMD patients and the prevalence of TMDs in patients with FMS. Method: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases. Studies published in English examining the prevalence of comorbid TMDs and CWP/FMS were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality, and meta-analyses using defined diagnostic criteria were conducted to generate pooled prevalence estimates. Results: Nineteen studies of moderate to high quality met the selection criteria. Meta-analyses yielded a pooled prevalence rate (95% CI) for TMDs in FMS patients of 76.8% (69.5% to 83.3%). Myogenous TMDs were more prevalent in FMS patients (63.1%, 47.7% to 77.3%) than disc displacement disorders (24.2%, 19.4% to 39.5%), while a little over 40% of FMS patients had comorbid inflammatory degenerative TMDs (41.8%, 21.9% to 63.2%). Almost a third of individuals (32.7%, 4.5% to 71.0%) with TMDs had comorbid FMS, while estimates of comorbid CWP across studies ranged from 30% to 76%. Conclusions: Despite variable prevalence rates among the included studies, the present review suggests that TMDs and CWP/FMS frequently coexist, especially for individuals with painful myogenous TMDs. The clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic aspects of this association are important for tailoring appropriate treatment strategies.
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3263Pages 195-206, Language: English
Aims: To document National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) practitioner treatment recommendations for patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to identify practitioner/practice- and patient-related factors contributing to treatment recommendations made at the initial clinical visit. Methods: This prospective single-sample cohort study formed groups based on treatment recommendations made by 185 dental practitioners who treated 1,901 patients with painful TMDs. At the baseline visit, which this article describes, practitioners provided patients with their diagnoses and a treatment plan and then completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Results: Self-care, an intraoral appliance, medication, and practitioner-recommended jaw exercises were the most frequently recommended treatments. Practitioners recommended multiple treatments to most patients. TMD signs, symptoms, and diagnoses were primary considerations in treatment planning, but the practitioner’s expectations for improvement were only significant for intraoral appliances and self-care. Female practitioners and those with expertise in TMDs more frequently recommended patient-directed and multidisciplinary treatments compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Practitioners used a wide range of treatments for patients with few consistent patterns. The propensity to use TMD signs, symptoms, and diagnoses when making treatment recommendations suggests a tendency to conceptualize patients using the biomedical model. Infrequent referral to nondental providers suggests a lack of availability of these providers, a misunderstanding of the complexity of TMDs, and/or discomfort with assessment of psychosocial factors. Implications include the need for comprehensive training in the assessment and management of TMD patients during dental school and participation in TMD continuing education courses following evidence-based guidelines.
DOI: 10.11607/ofph.3353Pages 207-216, Language: English
Aims: To develop a new approach to provide insights into contributing factors to the etiology and pathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) through discrimination of the salivary metabolomic profiling of patients with TMDs of muscular origin (ie, local myalgia) and healthy individuals. Methods: Saliva samples from 19 patients with TMDs of muscular origin (ie, local myalgia) and 39 healthy controls were collected and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 1H NMR spectra for all samples were acquired using a Bruker Avance-III NMR spectrometer operating at 500 MHz, and data processing was performed in TopSpin, MestreNova, SIMCA, and AMIX softwares for metabolite identification. Results: Eight key metabolites were identified between the healthy controls and patients: L-isoleucine, methylmalonic acid, isopropanolamine, dimethyl sulfone, lactic acid, 4-ethoxyphenylacetic acid, N-acetyl alanine, and D-galactose. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomics coupled with multivariate data analysis is a powerful method for the metabolomic profiling of patients with TMDs of muscular origin (ie, local myalgia).