Pages 5, Language: English
Pages 7-16, Language: English
Aims: To assess the biopsychosocial factors associated with acute temporomandibular disorders (TMD) based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD).
Methods: Participants were assessed in community-based dental clinics and evaluated by trained clinicians using physical and psychosocial measures. A total of 207 subjects were evaluated. Patients' high-risk versus low-risk status for potentially developing chronic TMD was also determined. Analyses of variance and chi square analyses were applied to these data.
Results: Participants' characteristic pain intensity differed among RDC/TMD Axis I diagnoses. They also significantly varied in their self-reported graded chronic pain, depression, somatization (pain inclusive), somatization (pain excluded), and physical well-being. In addition, participants with differing RDC/TMD Axis I diagnoses varied in self-reported pain during their chewing performance. Finally, there were also significant differences in chewing performance between high-risk versus low-risk (for developing chronic TMD) patients.
Conclusion: Participants with multiple diagnoses reported higher pain, as well as other symptoms, relative to participants without a TMD diagnosis. For chewing performance, participants with mutual diagnoses reported more pain compared to other participants. Finally, the risk-status of patients significantly affected chewing performance.
Keywords: biopsychosocial profiles, clinical utility, diagnostic criteria, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders
Pages 17-25, Language: English
Aims: To examine the prevalence and significance of clinically determined signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and pain in different parts of the body as well as the frequency, intensity, and other features of pain in children.
Methods: The subjects were a population-based sample of children 6 to 8 years of age. Complete data on clinical signs of TMD were available for 483 children. Data on pain during the past 3 months, assessed by a questionnaire administered by parents, were available for 424 children. Differences between the prevalence of at least one sign of TMD and the location or frequency of pain were evaluated using the chi-square test, as well as the associations between the prevalence, frequency, and location of pain and gender, the use of medication, and visits to a physician. The relationship of various pain conditions with the risk of having clinical signs of TMD was analyzed using logistic regression.
Results: Of the 483 children, 171 (35%) had at least one clinical sign of TMD. Of the 424 children, 226 (53%) had experienced pain during the past 3 months. Pain was most prevalent in the lower limbs (35%) and head (32%). Of the 226 children with pain, 119 (53%) had experienced frequent pain (>= once a week). No gender differences were found. The risk of having at least one clinical sign of TMD was 3.0 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.1-8.5, P < .05) times higher in children with back pain, 2.7 (95% CI: 1.2-6.0, P < .05) times higher in children with neck-shoulder pain, and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5, P < .05) times higher in children with headache compared to children without these pain symptoms. The risk of having at least one clinical sign of TMD was 12.2 (95% CI: 1.4-101.8, P < .01) times higher among children with palpation tenderness in trapezius muscles than among those without it.
Conclusion: Clinical signs of TMD and pain symptoms are common in children. The relationship of back pain, neck-shoulder muscle palpation tenderness, and headache with clinical signs of TMD suggests that more attention should be paid to stomatognathic function in children with such pain problems.
Keywords: children, headache, pain, temporomandibular disorders, widespread pain
Pages 26-32, Language: English
Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) to relieve temporomandibular joint (TMJ) degenerative joint disease (DJD) pain.
Methods: A search of the literature was made using electronic databases complemented with a manual search. Clinical trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or an alternative active treatment to treat TMJ DJD pain were identified. Outcomes evaluated were pain reduction/pain control and/or incidence of side effects.
Results: A single study (double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial) with 20 patients was identified that evaluated the efficacy of a topically prepared NSAID over a 12-week duration, measuring functional pain intensity, voluntary and assisted mouth opening, pain disability index, and a brief pain inventory analysis. This study revealed a pain intensity decrease within treatment groups but no significant difference between treatment groups.
Conclusion: Presently, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of topically applied NSAID medications to palliate TMJ DJD pain.
Keywords: anti-inflammatories, osteoarthritis, systematic review, temporomandibular joint, topical nonsteroidal
Pages 33-38, Language: English
Aim: To explore the relationship between general joint hypermobility (GJH) and displacement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc as evident from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: Fifth finger extension, thumb apposition, elbow extension, knee extension, trunk flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion were measured in 66 young female patients with MRI-evident TMJ internal derangement (ID) and in 30 age-matched female controls. The Beighton score of each subject was measured quantitatively. The possible association between TMJ ID and mobility of a single joint or index of GJH, ie, the Beighton score, were assessed with one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni and chi-square test, respectively. Correlations of the mobility of every measured joint were also explored.
Results: Very few of the TMJ ID patients and control subjects were diagnosed with GJH according to the Beighton score. The Beighton score did not differentiate between subjects with and without TMJ ID. Subjects with TMJ ID, especially patients with MRI-evident disc displacement without reduction, seemed to have a stiffer trunk than controls, but this may not be of clinical relevance. The mobilities of paired joints were significantly correlated; however, the mobilities of different anatomical joints seemed to be independent.
Conclusion: Based on the Beighton score, GJH does not seem to be a reliable indicator of the presence of TMJ ID.
Keywords: Beighton score, general joint hypermobility, internal derangement, temporomandibular joint
Pages 39-48, Language: English
Aims: To (A) evaluate test-retest reliability of vibrotactile sensitivity in the masseter muscle and (B) test if (1) the vibration threshold is decreased after experimental tooth clenching, (2) intense vibrations exacerbate pain after tooth clenching, (3) pain and fatigue are increased after tooth clenching, and (4) pressure pain thresholds are decreased after tooth clenching.
Methods: In part A, 25 healthy female volunteers (mean age: 42 ± 12 years) participated, and 16 healthy females (mean age 32 ± 10 years) participated in three 60-minute sessions, each with 24- and 48-hour follow-ups in part B. Participants were randomly assigned tooth-clenching exercises with clenching levels of 10%, 20%, or 40% of maximal voluntary clenching. A Vibrameter applied to the right masseter muscle measured perceived intensity of vibration and perceived discomfort, which were assessed on 0-50-100 numeric rating scales. An electronic algometer measured pressure pain threshold (PPT). Two 0- to 100-mm visual analog scales measured pain intensity (VASpain) and fatigue (VASfatigue). Measurements were made on the right masseter muscle. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate test-retest reliability of VT measurements. Outcome variables were tested with two-way ANOVAs for repeated measures and Dunnett's post-hoc test.
Results: Moderate long-term (ICC 0.59) and good short-term (ICC 0.92) reliability was found for VT on the masseter muscle. Clenching level had no main effect on perceived intensity of vibration; time effects (P < .05) were only observed at 40 minutes (Dunnett's test: P < .01). Clenching level and time had no effect on perceived discomfort. Only time effects were significant for PPT (P < .01), with reductions at 50 and 60 minutes compared to baseline (Dunnett's test: P < .05). Clenching level and time had main effects for VASpain and VASfatigue (P < .001).
Conclusion: Experimental tooth clenching appears to evoke moderate levels of pain and fatigue and short-lasting hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation, but not proprioceptive allodynia. The absence of proprioceptive allodynia does not necessarily exclude delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) but warrants further studies on the clinical manifestations of DOMS in jaw muscles.
Keywords: experimental pain, muscle pain, pain measurement, proprioceptive allodynia, tooth clenching
Pages 49-58, Language: English
Aims: To field-test carefully designed criteria for pain following trigeminal nerve trauma.
Methods: In order to characterize the clinical phenotype, posttraumatic pain patients were studied and compared with classical trigeminal neuralgia patients (CTN, defined according to the International Headache Society's criteria). Based on etiology and features, trigeminal pain following trauma was defined as "peripheral painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy" (PPTTN). Data were analyzed with t tests, ANOVA, chi-square, and regression analyses.
Results: A total of 145 patients were included: 91 with PPTTN and 54 with CTN. Findings indicated that PPTTN criteria are clinically applicable in the detection and characterization of relevant cases. In contrast to accepted characteristics for PPTTN, the observed profile included both continuous and paroxysmal pain that was stabbing and/or burning. The quality, duration, and intensity were significantly different from the CTN patients (P < .05). PPTTN was consistently accompanied by trigeminal sensory abnormalities (96%) that were mostly allodynia, hyperor hypoalgesia, and only 1% of the PPTTN cases had anesthesia.
Conclusion: Overall, the proposed PPTTN criteria have proven to be clinically useful. In view of these results, modified PPTTN diagnostic criteria are proposed for use in future research.
Keywords: atypical odontalgia, neuropathic pain, persistent idiopathic facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia
Pages 59-64, Language: English
Aims: To study the effect of radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) on headache and facial pain conditions following critical reevaluation of the original diagnosis.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of clinical records gathered over 4 consecutive years of all 15 facial pain or headache patients who underwent RFT of the SPG at a tertiary pain clinic; diagnoses were reevaluated, after which the effect of RFT on facial pain was assessed.
Results: After application of new criteria for Sluder's neuralgia (SN) and strict criteria for cluster headache (CH), seven patients out of the 15 turned out to have been diagnosed correctly. Nine of the 15 patients showed considerable pain relief after RFT of the SPG. Positive results were most frequent among patients with Sluder's neuropathy, atypical facial pain, and CH. However, repeated RFT procedures were needed in most patients.
Conclusion: Correct headache and facial pain diagnosis is vital to assess the outcome of different treatment strategies. Even in a tertiary center, headache and facial pain can be misdiagnosed. RFT of the SPG may be effective in patients with facial pain, but repeated procedures are often needed.
Keywords: atypical facial pain, classification, cluster headache, facial pain, radiofrequency thermocoagulation, Sluder's neuralgia
Pages 65-68, Language: English
Pages 69, Language: English
Pages 70-72, Language: English