Objectives: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of coronal and partial pulpotomies in mature permanent molars with cariously exposed vital pulp. Method and materials: The protocol of the current review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD 42020190785). Articles published between January 1980 and June 2020 were searched in eight different online databases and six textbooks according to PRISMA guidelines. Eleven studies were included in the analysis of 1-year success rates, whereas five studies were included in the analyses of 2-year and > 2-year success rates for coronal pulpotomy. Two studies were included in the analyses of the 1-year and 2-year success rates for partial pulpotomy. The clinical and radiographic success rates were estimated using the DerSimonian-Laird random effect method. The risks of bias were evaluated using Cochrane RoB 2, ROBINS-I, and Newcastle-Ottawa scale assessment tools. Evidence levels were determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) recommendation tool. The success rates using different pulp capping medicaments and restorative materials were analyzed using meta-regression analysis.
Results: The clinical and radiographic success rates of coronal pulpotomy ranged between 92.2% and 99.4%, whilst for partial pulpotomy, the success rates ranged between 78.2% and 80.6%. Different pulp capping medicaments and restorative materials showed no significant effect on the success rates of coronal pulpotomy, but the former significantly (P < .05) affected the success rates of partial pulpotomy.
Conclusion: Coronal and partial pulpotomies demonstrated a high success rate in treating cariously exposed vital pulp of mature permanent molars. Further well-designed studies with longer follow-up periods are required to validate these findings. (Quintessence Int 2021;52:196–208; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b912685)
Keywords: meta-analysis, permanent molar, pulp capping medicament, pulpotomy, systematic review
This literature-based OPINION PAPER reflects in an introductory historical perspective on the rapid advancement of dental adhesive technology. Past and current techniques to bond to tooth tissue, in particular to dentin as the most challenging bonding substrate, are critically appraised. Including the historical perspective in (1), this paper focuses on fourteen items thought to be of primary importance with regard to the current status of dental adhesive technology. In (2) the primary mechanisms involved in adhesion to enamel and especially dentin are dealt with having (3) also revisited the previously introduced adhesion-decalcification concept (AD concept) as basis of biomaterial-hard tissue interaction; the worldwide accepted classification of today's adhesives into etch&rinse (E&R) and self-etch (SE) adhesives are presented in (4), along with presentation of their respective PLUS-MINUS balances in (5) and (6); nomination of the GOLD-STANDARD E&R (7) and SE (8) adhesives is based on evidence of successful laboratory and long-term clinical performance, resulting in a recommended 3-step full E&R bonding route in (9) and the preferred 3-step combined selective enamel E&R with 2-SE bonding route in (10); (11) description of the main bond-degradation pathways and eight strategies to preserve bond stability; (12) coverage of the PROS and CONS of the newest generation of UNIVERSAL adhesives. Looking into the future, some expected future developments in dental adhesive technology have been suggested in (13), along with (14) a first status determination of the latest research-and-development towards self-adhesive restorative materials that no longer require any pre-treatment.
Keywords: review, bonding, dentin, adhesion, self-adhesive
The extraction of a tooth with root resorption can be a complicated procedure and can result in the removal of a significant amount of alveolar bone. In the anterior maxilla, esthetic rehabilitation of damaged sites with implant-supported crown could require multiple surgeries. Patients often ask for an alternative, and minimally invasive treatments are generally preferred. In this paper, a clinical case of implant-supported crown in a site affected by root resorption is described. Immediate implant was placed leaving some root fragments in the osteotomy site, thus avoiding invasive extractive surgeries. A minimally invasive flapless technique with a computer-guided implant placement procedure was used. After ?8 years, clinical and radiologic data were stable, gingival tissues around the implant appeared healthy, no dark translucency appeared through marginal gingiva around the implant, and there was no pathologic probing pocket depth ?or bleeding on probing. In the presence of root resorption and ankylosis, computer-guided surgery could be helpful to prepare a precise implant site through various tissues, such as partially resorbed root remnants. (Quintessence Int 2021;52:132–137; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a45432)
Keywords: digital dentistry, implants, prosthodontics, tooth erosion, tooth wear
Abstract: Tooth-cavity preparation contributes to a large extent to the quality of the direct posterior composite restoration, the so-called hidden quality of the restoration. Indeed, the effect of a poor cavity design is not immediately visible after placement of the restoration. To correctly prepare a cavity for a posterior composite restoration, the tooth to be restored should first be profoundly biomechanically analyzed. Here, the forces that work on the tooth during occlusion and articulation, and the amount and quality of the remaining tooth structure determine the cavity form. In addition, the dental tissues must be prepared in order to receive the best possible bond of the adhesive and subsequent restorative composite. A well-finished cavity preparation enables the restorative composite to adapt well, providing a good marginal ?seal to the direct benefit of the clinical lifetime of the posterior composite restoration. Finally, it is highly recommendable to isolate the teeth with rubber-dam before starting with the cavity preparation, as this increases the visibility of the operating field and allows the operator to work in a more precise way.
This report describes the cases of two patients with a maxillary lateral incisor with palatogingival groove and extensive endodontic-periodontal lesions. Although it is reported that acceptable periodontal status is of great importance in case selection in intentional replantation, it is suggested in this report that intentional replantation could be chosen instead of immediate extraction if extensive endodontic-periodontal lesions exist in a tooth with palatogingival groove. The gingival margin position and gingival papilla were well preserved and the bone defect was almost completely repaired. This was beneficial to the aesthetic prosthodontic treatment and implantation, although external root resorption was observed.
Keywords: bone repair, endodontic-periodontal lesion, external root resorption, intentional replantation, palatogingival groove
Efficacy of RelaxBogen plus stabilization splint therapy versus stabilization splint therapy alone
Aim: To study the therapeutic effect of the RelaxBogen device on sleep bruxism (SB) and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD)-related symptoms and pain of myogenic origin in a trial of RelaxBogen plus stabilization splint therapy (RB-SST) versus stabilization splint therapy alone (SST).
Materials and methods: A single-blind, single-center randomized controlled trial of RB-SST versus SST (control) in 32 patients with SB and TMD symptoms, who were randomly assigned to treatment with either RB-SST or SST for a comparative efficacy analysis over a treatment duration of 8 weeks. All examinations were performed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) standards.
Results: Analysis of Stelzenmüller’s Pain Location/Numeric Rating Scale Questionnaire (SL-NRS) responses and muscle palpation test findings revealed significant pain reduction in the jaw elevator muscles in the RB-SST group compared with the SST (control) group. The RB-SST patients also had less pain on mouth opening. Furthermore, the RelaxBogen device had a mitigating effect on headache in association with muscular TMD symptoms, commonly described as tension headache.
Keywords: temporomandibular dysfunction, bruxism, jaw, headache, fascia, RelaxBogen, CMD, TMD, myalgia
Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of supportive peri-implant therapy (SPIT) on the rates of peri-implant diseases and peri-implant marginal bone loss. ?Data sources: The guidelines of PRISMA statement were followed in searching for randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and retrospective studies in several electronic databases and reference lists. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tools for nonrandomized studies were used to assess the risk of bias. Data were analyzed using statistical software. ?A total of 159 studies were identified. Five trials, with 1,570 implants in 617 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Overall meta-analysis showed significantly reduced rates of peri-implantitis with SPIT compared with non-SPIT at implant and patient levels. Peri-implant mucositis was significantly reduced with SPIT at implant level only. Peri-implant marginal bone loss was significantly reduced in patients with SPIT compared to those who did not attend SPIT.
Conclusion: SPIT can significantly reduce the rate of peri-implantitis and marginal bone loss. The evidence on the role of SPIT in reducing the rate of peri-implant mucositis, on the other hand, remains limited. Further well-designed studies on the impact of SPIT on implant treatment outcome are still needed. Clinical significance: There is a need to adopt a SPIT regimen for patients receiving implant therapy to reduce the rate of peri-implant diseases and marginal bone loss. This need should be stipulated in the patient information and consent forms prior to implant therapy. (Quintessence Int 2021;52:122–131; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a45428)
Keywords: dental implants, meta-analysis, peri-implant marginal bone loss, review, supportive peri-implant therapy
Purpose: Orthodontic treatment may introduce a risk to the integrity of enamel due to plaque accumulation and colonisation by oral microbes. This prospective cohort study observed the effect of fixed, self-ligating orthodontic appliances on saliva properties and oral microbial flora.
Materials and Methods: Thirty adolescent patients were recruited (13 female, 17 male, mean age 13.97 ± 2.07 years). Saliva samples were collected before placement of fixed orthodontic appliances (T0), and 4 (T1) and 12 (T2) weeks later. Salivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were recorded. All saliva samples were cultured on agar plates for 2 days. Salivary prevalence of Neisseria spp., streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida albicans were assessed.
Results: High buffering capacity was reported in 21 patients at T0, 22 patients at T1 and in 28 patients at T2. Saliva flow rate also increased over time (7.08 ml/5 min at T0, 7.93 ml/5 min at T1 and 8.35 ml/5min at T2). Mean pH was 7.63 at T0, 7.67 at T1 and 7.78 at T2. There was no evidence that either pH or the number of colonies of any of the microbial species changed over time.
Conclusion: The increased buffering capacity of saliva as well as the salivary flow rate after initial bonding might be protective against the development of dental caries. Current microbial findings indicate that initiation of orthodontic treatment may not be associated with significant changes in oral microbial flora.
Keywords: microbial flora, orthodontics, saliva
Augmentation of alveolar ridge defects is a technique-sensitive procedure in dental implantology. Depending on the size of the defect, it may be necessary to use autogenous bone blocks. However, patients may be against these blocks as these procedures are surgically invasive.
Case report: This report describes the restoration of a partially edentulous mandible, which suffered a major bone defect from the right canine to the third molar site after multiple implant losses. The use of a CAD/CAM allogeneic cancellous bone block from a living donor bone was planned for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridge at the defected site. A CBCT scan was taken and the virtual planning of the bone augmentation and placement of four implants was performed. The milled bone block was fixed for augmentation and the implants were placed using a CBCT-generated surgical guide. After osseointegration, a CAD/CAM-fabricated screw-retained metal-ceramic implant fixed partial denture with angulated screw channels was delivered.
Results: The use of CAD/CAM-milled, allogeneic bone block resulted in a time-efficient and simplified reconstruction of the defect because no donor site was used, and the fit of the block on the native bone was uneventful and fast. At the 1-year follow-up, an average peri-implant vertical soft tissue decrease of 1 mm on buccal and 0.3 mm on lingual sites was observed and the peri-implant tissues were healthy.
Conclusions: The long-term success of this CAD/CAM cancellous bone block needs to be evaluated in well-designed clinical studies.
Keywords: allogeneic bone substitutes, alveolar bone loss, block graft, dental implants, guided implant surgery, prosthodontics
Purpose: To assess the association of various factors including education level and oral health with type 2 diabetics’ awareness of periodontitis and periodontitis/diabetes relationship, and to evaluate the importance of integrated healthcare in this association.
Materials and Methods: 288 type 2 diabetics were evaluated through a validated structured questionnaire about oral hygiene habits, access and attendance to dental treatment, the presence of periodontitis and previously received information of periodontitis and periodontitis/diabetes relationship. Descriptive data were explored and both simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed.
Results: The average age of participants was 62.24 (±10.93) years, 81.6% were previously treated for periodontitis and approximately 70% have never received information on periodontitis and its relationship with diabetes. A higher chance of participants having previously received information regarding periodontitis was associated with more than 8 years of schooling, daily flossing habit, presence of periodontitis and prior treatment for periodontitis (p
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, periodontal diseases, health promotion, public health/community dentistry, primary healthcare
Implant dentistry is considered to be a safe and routine surgical procedure. However, cases of life-threatening hematoma of the floor of the mouth resulting in airway obstruction were previously reported as a complication of implant placement in the anterior mandible. Massive bleeding in this anatomical site may be caused by perforating the lingual cortex and/or damaging the lingual perimandibular vessels. In the long term, dental implants can fail, mainly due to peri-implantitis, and must be removed. Explantation procedure may occasionally become a complex challenge, with a risk for various complications.
Case report: This report presents the first case of life-threatening hematoma of the floor of the mouth, as a complication secondary to a failed attempt of dental implant removal at the anterior mandible. The proximity of the implant to the lingual vascular canal might have served as a cause for vascular damage during explantation.
Conclusions: Implant removal complications are scarcely described in the literature. Nonetheless, damaging blood vessels during explantation should not be underestimated. Computed tomography (CT) may be of value not only in preoperative implant planning but also before implant removal in jeopardized anatomical zones such as the anterior mandible. Lingual vascular canals should be looked for on computed tomography scans.
Keywords: airway, anterior mandible, bleeding, explantation, hematoma, implant removal
DOI: 10.3290/j.cjdr.b867899, PubMed ID (PMID): 33491362Pages 297-307, Language: EnglishRen, Jian Han / Wang, Wei Cai / Zhou, Chen / Huang, De Lan / Li, Run Ze / Feng, Zhi Cai / Chen, Yi Jia / Wang, Xi / Cao, Yang / Cai, Bin / Bao, Bai Cheng
Ideally, orthognathic surgery is indicated to treat skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe open bite in adults. In this borderline case, however, camouflage treatment without any skeletal anchorage was chosen. This report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 23-year-old man who presented with multiple orthodontic problems including severe open bite of the anterior and posterior teeth up to the first molars, bilateral posterior crossbite, bilateral Class III molar relationship, severe crowding, increased vertical dimension, and dental and facial midline deviation. The treatment included the extraction of four wisdom teeth, uprighting and distalisation of the mandibular arch with molar intrusion using curved NiTi wires with intermaxillary elastics. After 36 months of treatment, satisfactory improvements in the vertical overlap, horizontal overlap and sagittal malocclusion were achieved. The design of the mechanical system used in this case confirmed stable results at the 4-year follow-up.
Keywords: anchorage, molar distalisation, open bite, skeletal class III malocclusion
Diskussionsbeitrag des Masterkurses „Parodontologie und Implantattherapie“ der DG PARO und DIU
Parodontale Erkrankungen sind eine der häufigsten entzündlichen Erkrankungen des Menschen. Kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen (KVE) stellen die häufigste Todesursache in Deutschland dar. Beide Erkrankungsformen stehen schon seit Längerem im Verdacht, sich gegenseitig zu beeinflussen. Ein direkter Beweis dieses Zusammenhangs ist jedoch methodisch schwierig und bisher wissenschaftlich nicht existent. Daher war es das Ziel des Masterkurses – Modul IV, mögliche Zusammenhänge anhand der aktuellen Literatur zu zeigen und kritisch zu hinterfragen.
Keywords: Parodontitis, kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen, Risikofaktoren
Anhand eines Patientenbeispiels werden die klinischen und labortechnischen Prozesse zur digitalen Herstellung eines individuellen Aufbissbehelfs gezeigt.
Keywords: Digitales Labor, Aufbissschiene, dentale 3-D-Software
Objectives: Patients with xerostomia manifest various clinical signs of oral dryness, which has an impact on oral functions and wearing of dental prosthese?s, but the evidence of xerostomia-related changes in denture performance is unsatisfactorily documented. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate whether the available literature can answer the focused question “Is there an association between xerostomia and decreased denture performance among patients wearing removable dentures?” Data sources: Indexed databases were explored without time or language restrictions up to and including March 2019. All levels of available evidence including experimental studies, case reports, and case series were searched using different combinations of the following keywords: saliva, xerostomia, dentures, personal satisfaction, quality of life, oral dryness, and oral complaints. Nine studies were included for qualitative synthesis. Overall, five studies had a cross-sectional design and four studies were case-control studies. In these studies, the number of participants ranged between 35 patients and 493 patients with mean ages ?from 56 to 82 years; 66% of the patients were completely and 34% were partially edentulous.
Conclusion: All studies included patient satisfaction with dentures and recorded the presence of oral dryness. Six out of nine studies demonstrated that xerostomia is significantly associated with the decreased performance of removable dentures. Although the available evidence lacks feedback from randomized, controlled clinical studies, it implies a negative impact of oral dryness on specific denture functions such as speaking, chewing, and retention, which affects both complete and partial denture wearers.
Keywords: performance, removable dentures, saliva, satisfaction, xerostomia
Purpose: White spot lesions (WSL) are common side-effects of orthodontic treatment with fixed multi-bracketed appliances. The aim of this review was to find all available literature and critically assess the evidence for the efficacy of bleaching as a method to treat or alleviate post-orthodontic WSLs in permanent teeth.
Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were screened for relevant literature with the aid of predetermined search strategies. All types of studies, including randomised or nonrandomised controlled trials (RCTs or CCTs), prospective and retrospective studies, as well as in vitro studies were considered eligible for inclusion. The reference lists of all included articles were hand searched for additional studies. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment.
Results: One RCT and 8 in vitro studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were classified as having a high risk of bias while 2 in vitro studies were graded as having a moderate risk of bias. The results showed that bleaching of WSL can diminish colour disparities between carious and non-affected areas, but the certainty of the evidence was very low. The high degree of methodological heterogeneity precluded a valid interpretation of the results through pooled estimates.
Conclusions: The findings from the present systematic review could not support or refute bleaching as an effective method for management of post-orthodontic WSLs. Because most of the studies in this field are in vitro and solid scientific evidence of low risk of bias is scare, further prospective in vivo studies are necessary.
Keywords: bleaching, enamel demineralisation, fluoride, tooth whitening, white spot lesions
Purpose: The aim of the present research was to analyse the effects of two bleaching agents, on the enamel crystallography by means of X-ray diffraction.
Material and Methods: Twelve human sound posterior teeth, were collected for the present study (n = 12) and from each tooth two enamel slabs were obtained and randomly assigned to one of two different bleaching protocols. The first protocol involved an in-office bleaching agent (hydrogen peroxide 37.5%/ SDI Polaoffice+), and the second an at-home whitening product (carbamide peroxide 16%/ PHILIPS Zoom! NiteWhite). X-ray diffraction readings were made before and after applying the treatments in order to analyse the peak intensity and crystal domain size. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out to identify the composition correctly. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05).
Results: Peak intensity in spectra obtained by X-ray diffraction had a tendency to diminish, mostly in the at-home bleaching group. The analysed data approximate a decrease in the crystal domain size among the samples treated for longer periods of time. Statistical analysis depicted no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups (p ≥ 0.05).
Conclusions: Crystal domain size had a tendency to decrease, mostly when the enamel was treated by bleaching gels that had to be applied by prolonged periods of time.
Keywords: bleaching agent, enamel crystallography, X-ray diffraction
Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the literature and chart the clinical studies that have focused on periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes since 1996.
Materials and Methods: Medline, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched for original studies focused on pregnancy outcomes and periodontal status in humans. The most recent search was conducted on April 30, 2020.
Results: Of the 633 articles identified, 232 articles (n = 119,774 participants) were selected for analysis. The majority of studies highlighted a statistically significant association between periodontal diseases and preterm birth (71 of 111 articles; 63.96%), low birth weight (46 of 64 articles; 71.87%), preterm low birth weight (29 of 49 articles; 59.18%), preeclampsia (31 of 45 articles; 68.89%) and other pregnancy complications, such as preterm, prelabor rupture of membranes (17 of 26 articles; 65.38%). Geographical analysis revealed that clinical studies were conducted in 51 countries, primarily in the United States (42 studies, 18.10%), Brazil (33 studies, 14.22%) and India (25 studies, 10.78%). Irrespective of geographical location, analysis showed various degrees of evidence of a relationship between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Conclusion: The majority of the studies found a statistically significant link between periodontal diseases and some complications of pregnancy. The strength of such a link varies according to type of study, type of variable and outcome measure selected.
Keywords: periodontal diseases, pregnancy, adverse pregnancy outcomes, mapping
Objective: To collect information and statistical data regarding the current oral health care and dental education resources in China.
Methods: Electronic databases were searched and a literature review conducted. The homepages of relevant universities and colleges were visited to collect dental education information. In addition, private conversations with related experts were conducted.
Results: Compared with the 3rd National Oral Health Survey (2005), the ratio of gingival bleeding in individuals aged 33 to 44 years has increased in the last 10 years. The average percentage of residents visiting departments of dentistry in public hospitals is less than 10%. The total number of dentists and assistant dentists increased to 167,227 in 2016, with a ratio of 1.21 per 10,000 people. There is a great imbalance in the distribution of dental practitioners among the provinces. There are 101 dental schools or departments of stomatology that provide 5-year dental training courses and offer bachelor's degrees in dentistry, with another 93 dental institutions offering shorter 3-year training courses for assistant dentists.
Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there has been significant change during recent years in China. However, the ratio of dental practitioners to the population as well as the number of dental visits carried out is still much lower than in developed countries and does not satisfy the demand for dental care in China. The quality and quantity of dental education, including continuing dental education, calls for improvement in the future.
Keywords: oral health care, dental education, China, dentist, oral health status
Objectives: This paper is aimed at addressing the urgent need to develop a protocol that will address the operatory and clinical aspects of dental care during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.
Data sources: The epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms, and modes of transmission of COVID-19 are presented. This protocol was established as an international collaboration of three dental universities: Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Israel; University of Rochester Medical Center, USA; and the University of Pennsylvania, USA. This protocol is based on a detailed review of the existing English language literature as well on the logistic and clinical experience of each facility and the opinion of the authors. The protocol is designed for a hospital setting and includes considerations related to dental treatment in both healthy subjects and those suspected or diagnosed with COVID-19. The first part of this review discusses operatory considerations; the second part discusses general dental clinical aspects; the third part discusses endodontic considerations; and the fourth part discusses surgical aspects. This protocol may be applicable to other future similar pandemics.
Conclusion: Logistic and clinical steps are required to provide dental care during the COVID-19 outbreak while preventing cross-contamination and protecting the dental team during the provision of care.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, dental, endodontics, infection control, pulpitis
Purpose: To investigate the subgingival microbiological profiles of patients with periodontitis, to determine their stage and grade scores and to evaluate the differences in the microbiota among different stages and grades.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven (n = 67) periodontitis patients were selected. Periodontitis staging and grading, following the 2018 classification system, were defined. Following a clinical examination, subgingival samples were taken from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant for cultivation, identification and quantification. The prevalence, proportion and counts of nine selected periodontal pathogens were determined, and differences between periodontitis stages III and IV and grades B and C were assessed.
Results: All nine cultivable periodontal bacteria were detected, of which the most prevalent was P. intermedia (91.0%) and the least prevalent were E. corrodens (9.0%) and C. ochracea (9.0%). The frequency of detection of the two main target pathogens, A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, was 41.8% and 76.1%, respectively. The prevalence (grade B: 80.6%, grade C: 55.6%, p = 0.035) and total counts (grade B: 19.8 colony forming units – CFU/ml-4 (1.9–52.8); grade C: 4.0 CFU/ml-4 (0.0–26.4); p = 0.022) of F. nucleatum were statistically significantly higher in grade B than in grade C periodontitis patients, whereas the counts of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were similar between grades and stages.
Conclusion: Our study suggests that relevant differences between the various grades of periodontitis exist only in the numbers of F. nucleatum. Prevalence and quantities of other cultivable species between different stages and grades of periodontitis seem to be similar.
Keywords: periodontitis, stage, grade, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum
Open Access Online OnlyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a45354, PubMed ID (PMID): 33028052Pages 843-854, Language: EnglishRajwani, Andrea Rani / Hawes, Sophia Nancy Diana / To, Amanda / Quaranta, Alessandro / Rincon Aguilar, Julio C.
Purpose: Currently, there is no consensus on recommendations for manual toothbrushing techniques between dentists, oral health therapists and dental companies. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and assess the quality of evidence of the effectiveness of manual toothbrushing techniques in the existing literature.
Methods: A broad search was conducted on the electronic databases Medline via Ovid, PubMed and EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences. Included studies examined manual toothbrushing technique efficiency. Articles were assessed utilising the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These included five randomised controlled trials (RCT), seven experimental non-randomised control studies and one in vitro study.
Results: Of the 3190 articles identified, 40 were relevant to manual toothbrushing and 13 were included in the final review. Studies indicating statistically significantly superior plaque removal for a given technique were Bass (one), modified Bass (one), Charter's (two), Fones (two), scrub (two), roll (one), modified Stillman (one), toothpick method (one). Four studies exhibited no statistically significant difference in effectiveness of plaque removal. Unfortunately, considerable variation was found between studies, making a definitive conclusion impossible in terms of an ideal manual toothbrushing technique that would promote plaque removal and reduce gingivitis.
Conclusion: There is still insufficient evidence for suggesting that one toothbrushing method is more effective than another in plaque removal and reduction of gingivitis. Excessive variability in many aspects of the design and methodology of the selected studies hinder conclusions on an ideal manual toothbrushing technique. Experimental randomised controlled trials that follow the CONSORT guidelines are required to provide adequate-quality evidence and make any definitive conclusions on the relative effectiveness of manual toothbrushing techniques.
Keywords: evidence-based medicine, oral hygiene, systematic review, toothbrushing
Objectives: Although several studies have investigated the effectiveness of various interdental cleaning devices, there is a need for an evidence-based synopsis for clinicians to customize interdental hygiene instructions and provide specific devices for each patient. This literature review aims to establish an evidence-based decision-making tree recommending individualized approaches to interdental cleaning based on embrasure size and patient-specific conditions.
Data sources: Specific keywords related to interdental cleaning were used to search and identify the existing literature in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Through a series of review processes, qualifying studies were identified and assessed with respect to the inclusion criteria to establish the decision tree.
Results: A total of 27 studies were included to support a decision tree. Traditional dental floss continues to remain the first choice for individuals of high motivation and good ?manual dexterity with type I closed embrasures. For individuals with closed embrasures, but lack of motivation and/or dexterity, the use of easy flossers, soft picks, oral irrigation, and small (0.6 to 0.7 mm) interdental brushes are alternatives. For individuals with type II and type III open embrasure spaces, an interdental brush has the highest evidence for its effectiveness to remove interdental plaque. However, two studies showed that residual plaque could be found over lingual embrasur?es and thus lingual approach of the interdental brush is sometimes needed. The use of gum stimulators and/or woodsticks continues to be supported when significant gingival inflammation is present.
Conclusion: Each patient should be individually assessed and given tailored oral hygiene home care instructions for the most effective outcomes. The proposed decision tree provides clinicians with an evidence-based guideline to help customize the use of interdental cleaning devices for each patient.
Keywords: biofilm, decision tree, dental hygiene, evidence, interdental, tooth brushing
Purpose: Several studies demonstrated compromised oral health and periodontal diseases as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, consideration of oral health by pregnant women remains elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and behaviour of French pregnant women towards relationship between oral conditions and pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate influencing factors.
Materials and Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was given to women between 1 and 3 days after delivery in three specialised clinics in France. The questionnaire aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics, self-perceived oral health, type of pregnancy follow-up and knowledge regarding oral conditions during pregnancy and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate correlation between knowledge and behaviour.
Results: The questionnaire was completed by 212 women. Among them, 92% considered prevention of oral diseases during pregnancy important. Despite knowledge of potential negative influence of periodontal diseases on pregnancy outcomes, only 47% of pregnant women received dental diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy. Only 18% of the women discussed oral health consideration during pregnancy with health professional in charge of pregnancy follow-up. Interestingly, absence of dental consultation during pregnancy was associated with low rate of dental consultation prior to pregnancy (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Pregnant women were aware of the association between oral health and pregnancy and of need of prevention. However, consideration of importance of oral health was not adequate to the rate of dental consultation and seems to be influenced by individual dental follow-up habits prior to pregnancy. Clinical Relevance: Dental evaluation should be considered systematically during pregnancy follow-up.
Keywords: oral health, questionnaire, prevention, risk factor
Purpose: A previous clinical study showed that the prevalence of erosive toothwear in vegetarians is statistically significantly higher than in nonvegetarians, due to the consumption of vinegar and other acidic foodstuffs. To adequately inform patients, this study investigated the erosive potential of bottled salad dressings available in Switzerland and compared it with that of orange juice.
Materials and Methods: One hundred enamel samples of bovine teeth were divided into ten groups. Samples were placed in 1 of 9 bottled salad dressings or orange juice (Granini) for 2 min. Afterwards, they were rinsed with Zürich tap water for 30 s, followed by abrasion with a toothbrush for 20 brush strokes and a toothpaste-saliva mixture. Erosive/abrasive enamel wear was determined with contact profilometry after 40 cycles.
Results: The enamel wear (median/IQR) caused by Tradition Sauce Balsamique (9.5 µm/5.3 µm), M-Classic Dressing Italiano (10.9 µm/12.3 µm), Betty Bossi Balsamico Dressing (9.4 µm/4.5 µm) and Thomy Balsamico Vinaigrette Dressing (14.2 µm/6.5 µm) was statistically significantly higher than that caused by orange juice (2.4 µm/0.8 µm). Enamel wear caused by M-Classic Dressing French Joghurt (0.2 µm/0.2 µm) and Coop Qualité & Prix French Dressing (1.2 µm/1.0 µm) was statistically significantly lower compared to that of orange juice.
Conclusions: The pure balsamico vinegar-based dressings (Italian type) showed a statistically significantly higher erosive potential than orange juice, whereas dressings containing calcium-rich products (enriched with milk and/or cream) (French-type) caused lower enamel wear than orange juice. The study shows that some bottled dressings have erosive potential even higher than orange juice and patients should be informed accordingly.
Keywords: erosion, tooth wear, salad dressings
Objective: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes in dental prophylaxis between rubber cup polishing and an air polishing system using erythritol powder, with or without prior dental plaque disclosure. Method and materials: In this single-blind, randomized, controlled, split-mouth clinical trial, healthy participants with full-mouth plaque score ≥ 60% were recruited. Quadrants in each participant were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: air polishing with prior plaque disclosure; air polishing without plaque disclosure; rubber cup polishing with prior plaque disclosure; or rubber cup polishing without plaque disclosure. Plaque scores and treatment time for each quadrant were recorded. Posttreatment satisfaction questionnaires for both the participants and operators were also completed.
Results: In total, 88 participants consisting of 42 men and 46 women (mean age 23.1 ± 2.0 years) were recruited. Air polishing with prior plaque disclosure had significantly lower posttreatment marginal mean plaque score (21.7 ± 17.5%) compared to air polishing (33.5 ± 23.4%) or rubber cup polishing (34.5 ± 19.7%) without prior plaque disclosure (P < .001). Marginal mean treatment time for air polishing (325 seconds; SE = 10 seconds) was significantly shorter compared to rubber cup polishing (407 seconds; SE = 15 seconds) (P < .001). Both the participants and operators preferred air polishing over rubber cup polishing (P < .001). Conclusion: Prior plaque disclosure enhanced the effectiveness of plaque removal. Air polishing exhibited better treatment efficiency than rubber cup polishing and was the patients’ and clinicians’ preferred treatment modality. (Quintessence Int 2021;52:264–274; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.a45602)
Keywords: air polishing, biofilm, dental prophylaxis, periodontal disease, rubber cup
Abstract: Currently, there is a trend towards simplification of materials and clinical procedures. Simplification and quality can go together if the dentist works with materials and techniques that are well proven in vitro and in vivo. The placement of a high-quality class-1/2 direct posterior composite restoration can be time efficient following a standardized layering protocol and using composite materials that adapt well to the tooth surface and are able to mimic the natural tooth. When these materials are applied in a controlled way, finishing and polishing can also be shortened. In this article, an effective layering and finishing/polishing protocol for medium-sized class-1/2 direct posterior composite restorations is presented. Following the histo-anatomic buildup of natural teeth, dentin must be concave, as opposed to convex enamel. An isochromatic, medium-opaque, highly filled flowable composite is used to replace dentin. Enamel is replaced with a medium-translucent small-particle hybrid composite. Enamel is modelled in an anatomical way, following a successive cusp-by-cusp buildup approach. Clinical experience shows that the combination of both materials used according to this so-called bi-laminar histo-anatomical layering approach results in restorations that blend in very well within the surrounding tooth structure. Following a simplified finishing and polishing protocol, the composite restorations will have a correct contour, seamless margins, and a smooth, glossy surface.
Keywords: adhesion, finishing, flowable, layering, polishing, polymerization, posterior composite, shrinkage