DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4703583, PubMed ID (PMID): 38015497Pages 790-791, Language: English
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4225983, PubMed ID (PMID): 37477040Pages 792-801, Language: English
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess whether computer-assisted periodontal diagnosis can improve the accuracy and homogeneity of classification results obtained by dental students using the 2017 classification of periodontal diseases.
Method and materials: All final year predoctoral dental students from two dental schools were invited to participate in the study. Participants who volunteered for the study were randomly divided into two groups for digital or manual diagnosis, and each participant classified 48 cases. A group of three experienced periodontists provided the reference or gold standard diagnosis.
Results: Overall, 27 students completed the evaluation of all cases; 14 students comprised the digital application group and 13 the manual group. The accuracy of the classification results compared with the gold standard committee was 82% for the digital group compared to 50% of the manual group in terms of the extent of gingivitis; 71% vs 56% for the stage of periodontitis; 67% vs 62% for grade of periodontitis; 76% vs 63% for extent of periodontitis; and 43% vs 30% for overall diagnosis accuracy of periodontitis cases respectively.
Conclusions: Computer-assisted classification using newly developed software, within the boundaries of this study, was shown to be a sensible support tool for dental practitioners to use when diagnosing periodontal disease. This digital tool can the clinicians’ accuracy of diagnosis primarily in the extent and staging of periodontitis.
Keywords: classification, computer assisted, periodontal, students
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4240197, PubMed ID (PMID): 37497787Pages 802-807, Language: English
Objective: The predictability and long-term success of periodontal regeneration begins with oral hygiene education, disease management, and an individually tailored periodontal maintenance protocol. The treatment outcomes could be enhanced when biologics and bone grafts are combined. The aim of this report was to describe the outcome of two complex infrabony defects in the same patient treated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) over 10 years.
Case presentation: Two complex infrabony defects were treated following guided tissue regeneration principles and procedures. Full-thickness flaps were raised to allow visualization of the defects. The areas were debrided, and exposed root surfaces were planed. FDBA and rhPDGF-BB were combined to fill both defects. A collagen membrane was used over the bone graft in one case. The flaps were reapproximated to achieve primary closure. The patient was seen for regular periodontal maintenance visits and clinical and radiographic follow-ups over 10 years. Throughout the examination periods, the probing depths improved without bleeding on probing, and there was radiographic evidence of bone regeneration.
Conclusion: The growth factor-infused bone graft was successfully utilized for periodontal regeneration in complex bony defects.
Keywords: bone graft, case report, collagen membrane, growth factor, periodontal disease, periodontal regeneration
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4325359, PubMed ID (PMID): 37602782Pages 808-820, Language: English
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of intrabony defects treated with decortication (intramarrow penetration) alone versus decortication combined with platelet-rich fibrin in periodontitis patients followed up for 6 months postsurgery.
Method and materials: A total of 46 intrabony defects from periodontitis patients with a mean age of 36.30 ± 6.10 years were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. The control group (n = 23) intrabony sites were accessed with simplified papilla preservation flap (SPPF) followed with debridement, decortication, and closure. The test group (n = 23) sites were accessed with SPPF, followed with debridement, decortication, platelet-rich fibrin placement, and closure. The clinical parameters Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing pocket depth, relative attachment level, gingival marginal level, along with radiographic defect depth and defect width were recorded at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months postsurgery. Gain in clinical attachment level was the primary outcome, and probing pocket depth reduction and radiographic bone fill were secondary outcomes of the study.
Results: The Plaque Index and Gingival Index scores showed nonsignificant difference on intra- and intergroup comparison at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The probing pocket depth was 8.17 ± 1.56 mm, 6.65 ± 1.30 mm, and 5.26 ± 1.18 mm for the control group, and 8.17 ± 2.01 mm, 6.26 ± 1.42 mm, and 4.78 ± 1.28 mm for the test group, at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The relative attachment level was 8.83 ± 1.40 mm, 6.78 ± 1.31 mm, and 5.39 ± 1.16 mm for the control group, and 8.39 ± 1.62 mm, 6.96 ± 1.36 mm, and 5.48 ± 1.20 mm for the test group at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. Statistically significant reductions were observed for probing pocket depth for the control (2.91 mm, P < .001) and test groups (3.39 mm, P < .001), as well as for relative attachment level for the control (3.44 mm, P < .001) and test groups (2.91 mm, P < .001). However, intergroup differences were nonsignificant for probing pocket depth and relative attachment level. The radiographic defect depth was reduced by 0.31 mm for the control and 1.57 mm for the test group. The radiographic defect width was reduced by 0.18 mm for the control and 0.83 mm for the test group. Intergroup statistically significant differences were observed at the 6-month follow-up (P < .001) for radiographic defect depth and width.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, the results demonstrate statistically significant intragroup improvements in clinical outcomes with decortication alone and decortication combined with platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of intrabony defects in periodontitis patients. The addition of platelet-rich fibrin did not improve the clinical results beyond decortication alone, and unacceptable postsurgery residual pockets were observed in both the protocols. Considering the small sample size, the addition of platelet-rich fibrin resulted in significant bone fill over and above that of decortication alone.
Keywords: alveolar bone loss, oral surgical procedures, periodontal pocket, periodontitis, platelet-rich fibrin
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4325347, PubMed ID (PMID): 37602781Pages 822-831, Language: English
Objectives: To assess the effects of a gluten-free diet on bone structure in children with celiac disease using fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs.
Method and materials: A total of 49 patients with celiac disease aged 6 to 13 years, separated into two groups as previously and newly diagnosed, and a control group of 32 healthy individuals were evaluated. In previously and newly diagnosed patients with celiac disease, body mass index Z-scores were calculated, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D3, and parathormone levels were measured, and bone mineral density Z-scores were obtained from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. In all patients, the fractal dimensions of the right and left temporomandibular condyles were evaluated with the fractal analysis method on panoramic radiographs.
Results: The mean values of serum biomarker levels and the body mass index and bone mineral density Z-scores for both celiac groups were within the normal reference range. No statistically significant difference was determined between right and left condyle fractal dimensions values in the three groups examined. In terms of both right and left condyle fractal dimensions values, there was a statistically significant difference between groups. The highest fractal dimensions values were determined in the previously diagnosed group.
Conclusions: Differences in fractal dimensions values were observed among patients with celiac disease following the gluten-free diet. Utilizing fractal analysis on panoramic radiographs can prove valuable for dental practitioners in evaluating bone mineral density due to its cost-effectiveness, easy accessibility, and reduced radiation exposure for patients, enabling them to provide comprehensive oral health care and potential early interventions for patients with celiac disease.
Keywords: bone mineral density, celiac disease, children, fractal analysis, panoramic radiography
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4213007, PubMed ID (PMID): 37449761Pages 832-843, Language: English
Objective: Patients taking antiresorptive medications in dental clinics are at risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), which poses daily challenges for their clinicians. This paper aimed to summarize and revisit the three most recognized practice guidelines for the management and prevention of MRONJ, which were proposed by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS), and presented by the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR) and the Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO).
Results and case studies: The AAOMS position paper focused on risk stratification by different medications, management decision trees, risk factors, pathophysiology, and disease staging. The JBMR international consensus presented eight focused questions, which were addressed by systematic reviews. The JCO clinical practice guideline presented six clinical questions, and each concluded with practical recommendations. Practical information was summarized and converted into an adoptable patient care workflow for clinicians to follow and apply in daily practice. Three case studies presented were treated following these guidelines. Each patient underwent advanced surgeries including alveoloplasty, tooth extraction, implant placement, and particulate bone grafting. Some of the considerations not fully informed were discussed and illustrated in each step of the patient care workflow, which included specifics for risk communication, updates on the use of antibiotics, biomarkers, and drug holidays.
Conclusion and practical implications: Structured risk communication with official informed consent documentation should be considered before initiating invasive treatments. Disease control phase with home care therapy should be provided prior to staged reconstructive therapy. Drug holidays and antibiotics coverage can be customized based on individual conditions and related procedures with interprofessional coordination.
Keywords: C-telopeptide, drug holiday, guideline, MRONJ, osteonecrosis
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4083477, PubMed ID (PMID): 37162311Pages 844-851, Language: English
Immediate full-arch loading is a highly complex and technique-sensitive procedure. Digital impression techniques aim to replace conventional analog systems to carry out dental treatments in a more predictive, safer, and less time-consuming way. This case report describes a patient with a guarded periodontal prognosis, who was rehabilitated with implant-supported fixed prostheses after full-mouth extractions. Immediate full-arch loading was performed by means of two digital impression systems: photogrammetric technology with PIC dental in the maxillary arch, and MedicalFit in the mandible. Immediate provisional prostheses in acrylic resin (polymethyl methacrylate) were milled and placed within 12 hours after implant placement surgeries. Both provisional structures fitted properly providing adequate esthetics and function. After the implant osseointegration period, final digital impressions were registered, and definitive zirconia full-arch implant-supported prostheses were delivered. The 24-month follow-up did not show biologic or mechanical complications.
Keywords: dental implant, digital impression, full-arch rehabilitation, immediate loading, photogrammetry
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b4313291, PubMed ID (PMID): 37581371Pages 852-866, Language: English
This paper is aimed at comprehensively reviewing olfactory and gustatory disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults. An electronic and manual search was done on three databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria included publications written in English, involving humans in the age range of 0 to 99 years that were captured by a controlled vocabulary of thesaurus terms. Olfactory and gustatory disorders rates in COVID-19 ranged from 22% to 71.9% in adults and 16.6% to 25.8% in children. Olfactory and gustatory disorders might appear as the first symptom, and in adults might even be the only symptom (4.8% to 10%). Anosmia is the most common olfactory disorder and hypogeusia is the most common gustatory disorder. In 33% to 89% of cases, olfactory and gustatory disorders resolve spontaneously within a few weeks, coinciding with the resolution of other COVID-19 symptoms, both in adults and children. However, in some patients, olfactory and gustatory disorders persist beyond the resolution of other symptoms. Notably, children generally experience a swifter and more favorable recovery compared to adults. The precise pathogenesis underlying olfactory and gustatory disorders in the context of COVID-19 remains unclear and is likely multifactorial. Presently, no established treatment protocol exists for olfactory and gustatory disorders and current treatments reviewed lack robust evidence and are not readily available for clinical use. Olfactory training represents the only therapy currently recommended by international authorities. Pediatric practitioners and general dental practitioners should be aware of olfactory and gustatory disorders in both pediatric and adult populations, including their biologic mechanisms, treatment options, and recovery rates.
Keywords: ageusia, anosmia, COVID-19, dysgeusia, gustatory, hypogeusia, olfactory, olfactory and gustatory disorders (OGD), SARS-CoV-2, smell, taste
PubMed ID (PMID): 38015498Pages 868, Language: English
The following amendments are made to the published article: Quintessence Int 2022;53:690–696; First published 17 August 2022; doi: 10.3290/j.qi.b3095013