Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6097, PubMed ID (PMID): 37294589Pages 1-8, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate tooth discoloration after the use of calcium silicate–based materials and to examine the effect of internal bleaching on tooth discoloration. Materials and Methods: The specimens were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n = 45) and a control group (n = 6). Cavities were filled with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) in Group 1 and Biodentine (Septodont) in Group 2. Color measurements were taken with a spectrophotometer before and after the application of materials at 1 week and then at 13, and 6 months. After 6 months, Groups 1 and 2 were divided into three subgroups according to internal bleaching techniques. All color change ratios and lightness differences were calculated using the CIE L*a*b* system. Data were analyzed using repeated ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test (P = .05). Results: There were statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 at all time intervals (P < .05). Group 1 showed more discoloration than Group 2 (P < .05). There were no significant differences between the bleaching agents (P > .05). Additionally, specimens in both groups became lighter than their initial color (P < .05). Conclusion: Teeth treated with ProRoot MTA exhibited darkening at 1 week that increased over time, whereas those treated with Biodentine maintained the lightness for 6 months.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6404, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879049Pages 9-17, Language: English
The aim of this study was to compare radiographic and clinical status and peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels among patients with and without peri-implant disease. Patients with peri-implant mucositis (PiM) (Group 1) and peri-implantitis (Group 2) and individuals without peri-implant disease (Group 3) were included. Demographic information was collected, and peri-implant modified plaque and bleeding indices (mPI and mBI), probing depth (PD), and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded. PISF samples were collected and PGE2 levels measured. Statistical significance was set at P < .01. A total of 22 patients with PiM, 22 with peri-implantitis, and 23 without peri-implant disease (controls) were included. Scores of mPI (P < .01), mBI (P < .01), and PD (P < .01) were higher in patients with PiM and peri-implantitis than the controls. The volumes of collected PISF were significantly higher in patients with peri-implantitis (P < .01) compared to patients with PiM and the controls. The PISF volume was significantly higher in PiM patients (P < .01) than in the controls. There was a significant correlation between peri-implant PD and PISF PGE2 levels in patients with peri-implantitis (P < .001). Raised PISF PGE2 levels indicate poor peri-implant health; therefore, PGE2 is a potential biomarker for the assessment of peri-implant health status.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6528, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879050Pages 18-25, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of desensitizing MI Varnish (GC America) applied before or after bleaching on the mineral component of enamel and surface topography. Materials and Methods: The coronal portions of 10 freshly extracted bovine teeth were segmented for a total of 40 specimens. Enamel specimens obtained from each tooth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): Group A = no bleaching; Group B = bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP); Group C = MI Varnish applied before bleaching; and Group D = MI Varnish applied after bleaching. The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels of the specimens in each group were determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphologic changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analyses (α = .05). Results: The mean Ca content of Group B was significantly lower than those of Groups A, C, and D (P < .05). The mean Ca content of Group C was significantly lower than that of Group A (P < .05). There was no significant difference in Ca content between the other groups (P > .05). The mean P content of Group A was significantly higher than those of Groups B to D (P < .05). There was no significant difference in P content between Groups B to D (P > .05). Conclusions: Application of MI Varnish before or after in-office bleaching was effective in reducing mineral loss. However, applying MI Varnish after bleaching was more effective.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6287, PubMed ID (PMID): 37471152Pages 26-35, Language: English
Dental implants are currently the preferred choice to restore function and esthetics. Nonetheless, explantation is sometimes inevitable in cases with advanced bone loss, implant fracture, or improper implant position. This study aimed to propose an algorithm for reimplantation at sites of previous failure. There is limited evidence on the replacement of failed implants, most of which are case reports or clinical trials with a small number of patients. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study proposing a clinical-decision algorithm to help clinicians manage implant failures with new implants. There are a variety of reasons contributing to implant failure: The etiologic factor of failure and the morphology of the residual defect have paramount importance on implant removal techniques and subsequent treatment modalities. There is no consensus on a distinct protocol to replace failed implants. However, the clinicians and patients should know that placing a new implant in an area with a history of failure, regardless of early or late implant failure, may have a lower survival rate.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6179, PubMed ID (PMID): 37294592Pages 36-52, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the coronally advanced lingual flap (CALF) technique in terms of the extent of lingual and buccal flap advancement, the maintenance of primary wound closure, and safety in comparison to buccal flap advancement alone during horizontal ridge augmentation in the posterior mandible. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients were randomly allocated to two different groups: buccal flap advancement without the CALF technique (control), referred to as the NO-CALF group, and buccal flap advancement with the CALF technique (test), referred to as the CALF group. Wound healing was monitored weekly for the first 4 weeks, then at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months postoperatively for any soft tissue dehiscence (titanium mesh [TM] exposure) along the incision line. The extent of lingual and buccal flap advancement was measured, and any intraoperative and postoperative CALF-related complications were reported. Results: The difference between groups was statistically significant (P < .0001) in terms of (1) TM exposure: 83.3% of cases in the NO-CALF group showed early Class П exposures, whereas the CALF group showed no exposure; (2) mean lingual flap advancement: 3.9 ± 1.1 mm and 14.4 ± 3.8 mm for the NO-CALF and CALF groups, respectively; and (3) mean buccal flap advancement: 15.8 ± 2.1 mm and 10.5 ± 1.4 mm for the NO-CALF and CALF groups, respectively. There were no reported complications related to the CALF technique. Conclusion: Tension-free primary wound closure was facilitated and maintained during the healing period by applying the CALF technique, which is a reliable technique to safely advance the lingual flap coronally.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6205, PubMed ID (PMID): 37294593Pages 53-64, Language: English
Tooth loss or extraction is associated with significant reduction in alveolar ridge volume, extensively expressed in the anterior zone, and immediate implant placement is insufficient to overcome this problem. The proposed approach combined immediate implant placement with buccal tissue enhancement by applying a crosslinked collagen matrix hydrated with crosslinked hyaluronic acid (xHyA). All 10 cases presented with a retained but narrow buccal socket wall, so immediate implant placement with the “tunneled sandwich” technique was performed after tooth extraction. The tunneled sandwich technique helped create a subperiosteal pouch for insertion of the collagen matrix buccal to the alveolar bone crest. The implants healed transmucosally by receiving either a gingiva former or an immediate temporary restoration. Ten sites in 10 patients demonstrated stable, noninflamed peri-implant conditions and suitable ridge volume at the implant neck and achieved high pink esthetic scores 6 months after implant loading. The tunneled sandwich technique is a suitable method to preserve buccal volume, which biologically and esthetically contributes to favorable long-term results.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6318, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879051Pages 65-77, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effects of airborne-particle abrasion and nanosilica (nano-Si) infiltration treatment on the surface characteristics of dental zirconia. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 unsintered zirconia ceramic green bodies (10 × 10 × 3 mm) were divided into three groups (n = 5): Group C, no treatment after sintering; Group S, airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles after sintering; and Group N, infiltration of nano-Si followed by sintering and hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching. The zirconia disks’ surface roughness was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the specimens was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was analyzed by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX). Data were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .05). Results: Zirconia surface treatments by infiltration of nano-Si, sintering, and HF etching showed multiple changes in the surface features. The surface roughness of Groups C, S, and N were 0.88 ± 0.07 μm, 1.26 ± 0.10 μm, and 1.69 ± 0.15 μm, respectively. The surface roughness of Group N was significantly higher than that of Groups C and S (P < .05). EDX analysis showed peaks that corresponded to silica (Si) after infiltration with colloidal Si that disappeared following acid etching. Conclusions: Infiltrating nano-Si increases the surface roughness of zirconia. The formation of retentive nanopores on the surface potentially improves the zirconia–resin cement bonding strengths.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5870, PubMed ID (PMID): 37338926Pages 78-85, Language: English
Diode lasers are increasingly being utilized as an alternative to conventional soft tissue surgery. Diode lasers originally referred to wavelengths ranging from 810 to 980 nm, but a visible diode laser with a 445-nm wavelength has emerged as an additional wavelength for soft tissue surgery. The goal of this case series was to demonstrate the clinical results of both visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths when utilized for stage-two implant surgery. Ten patients with 23 implants were treated at Stony Brook University, Department of Periodontology, for implant uncovering using both visible and nonvisible (NIR) diode lasers. The uncovering was performed utilizing 445-, 970-, and 980-nm wavelengths at a power setting of 2 W in either continuous or pulsed modes. The fiberoptic tips were initiated using blue articulating paper. Either topical benzocaine or infiltration anesthesia was utilized prior to soft tissue removal with the initiated tip. All patients healed uneventfully without any postoperative complications. Visible and NIR diode lasers provide an alternative and safe method to uncover submerged implants at stage-two surgery.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6542, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879052Pages 86-92, Language: English
This study compared the onset of vascular bleeding between osseodensification and conventional drilling of implant osteotomy sites. Patients with type III trabecular bone requiring a single missing tooth replacement were included and allocated to either Group A (test) or Group B (control). In Group A, the osseodensification group (OD), an implant osteotomy was carried out using Densah Burs (Versah) in the counterclockwise direction; in Group B, the standard drilling group (SD), Densah Burs were run in the clockwise direction. An endoscope was introduced into the osteotomy to visualize and measure the time taken for initiation of bleeding (BI) and for blood to fill the osteotomy site (BF). A total of 40 osteotomy sites (23 in the maxilla and 17 in the mandible) were included in this cross-sectional study. The mean age of study participants was 50.1 ± 8.28 years. The mean BI time for Groups A and B was 18.54 ± 2.48 seconds and 16.89 ± 1.92 seconds, respectively (P = .02); the mean BF time for Groups A and B was 41.92 ± 3.19 seconds and 37.95 ± 2.73 seconds, respectively (P < .001). Osseodensification does not seem to negatively affect or induce loss of bone vascularity. Clinicians should note that osseodensified sites might take slightly longer to fill with blood following an osteotomy.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6194, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879053Pages 93-106, Language: English
A total of 20 atrophic maxillary sinuses were augmented with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB), alloplast, and bovine xenograft using a direct approach. CBCT imaging was performed at baseline, immediately postoperatively, and at 6 and 30 months postoperatively. A histologic evaluation revealed the bone bridging and bone regenerative efficacy of the graft material. Radiographic evaluation determined the ridge height (H) and volume of the graft (V) to be as 3.02 ± 1.35 mm at baseline (H0), 15.18 ± 2.52 mm (H1) and 1,106.10 ± 398.84 mm3 (V1) immediately postoperatively, 14.79 ± 2.30 mm (H2) and 1,086.95 ± 396.86 mm3 (V2) at 6 months, and 1,058 ± 391.83 mm3 (V3) at 30 months, with a significant gain in the residual ridge height at 6 months and no significant loss or gain in sinus volume postoperatively.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6446, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552171Pages 107-117, Language: English
Successful rehabilitation of the anterior maxilla remains a challenge, primarily due to postextraction ridge collapse, which can lead to gingival recession and a nonesthetic appearance. The socket shield technique presents a viable alternative for immediate dental implant placement in the esthetic zone. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the survival, complication rates, and marginal bone loss around body-shift implants placed in fresh extraction sockets with the socket shield technique to replace maxillary incisors. After socket shield preparation, 14 hopeless incisors were extracted and immediately replaced by a body-shift implant (Inverta, Southern Implants) at baseline. Patients were followed up for 12 to 39 months (mean: 18.1 ± 8.2 months). The average age was 52.3 ± 16.9 years, and the survival rate was 100%. One socket shield presented minimal internal exposure that was successfully treated with a connective tissue graft. The mean PES score was 12.9 ± 1.2. Mean interproximal marginal bone loss was –0.4 ± 0.5 mm. Body-shift implants can be a promising alternative for immediate tooth replacement combined with the socket shield technique. The superior esthetic outcomes remained stable, suggesting that the extra space created by the narrow cervical portion of the implant is beneficial for preserving the alveolar bone and limiting internal shield exposure.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6395, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552172Pages 118-128, Language: English
This retrospective clinical study compared two different professional maintenance therapy (MT) approaches (with and without periodic removal and decontamination of prosthetic components) on peri-implant inflammatory clinical and biochemical parameters after 5 years of implant function. A retrospective analysis based on patient records was used to assess inflammatory clinical and biochemical parameters around dental implants placed by the same clinician in a private practice. The Plaque Index (PI), peri-implant probing depth (PPD), mucosal recession (REC), bleeding on probing (BOP), and radiographic marginal bone level were determined at baseline and at each follow-up year. Moreover, at the last follow-up visit, the peri-implant intrasulcular levels of active metalloproteinasis 8 (aMMP-8) were also assessed. All participants were under MT with a 6-month recall interval. A total of 92 patients with 132 implants were selected. At the end of the study period, 12 patients with 12 implants were classified as dropouts. The remaining 80 patients and 120 implants were classified into two groups: Group 1 (42 patients, 62 implants) received MT with periodic removal and decontamination of prosthetic components; Group 2 (38 patients, 58 implants) received MT without periodic removal and decontamination of prosthetic components. No statistical differences were found between the groups regarding PI, PPD, and REC. Group 1 presented a statistically significant higher number of sites with BOP (12.4% vs 6.2%). Marginal bone loss was statistically higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (0.23 ± 0.6 mm vs 0.78 ± 0.3 mm). Intrasulcular levels of aMMP-8 were statistically higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. The supplemental application of periodic removal and decontamination of prosthetic components during MT had a significantly positive effect on the inflammatory status of peri-implant tissues.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.4866, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879054Pages 129-145, Language: English
Purpose: To evaluate the marginal leakage of three different types of bonding agents used with two posterior composites and a giomer, available commercially. Material and Methods: Class II box-only cavities were prepared on 90 mandibular first molars with margins extending 1 mm beyond the cementoenamel junction. The samples were divided into nine groups based on three different bonding agents, two different composites, and a giomer. Cavities were restored per the manufacturer’s description. Teeth were subjected to a thermocycling procedure (500×, 5°C to 55°C) and dye penetration by immersing in a 2% methylene blue solution (Merck Specialties) for 24 hours. The marginal adaptation was evaluated as a continuous margin at the gingival level under a stereomicroscope. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results of the groups with the total-etch technique showed no statistical difference between the nanohybrid Filtek Z250 XT (3M ESPE) and fine hybrid SwissTEC composite (Coltène\Whaledent AG). The groups with the self-etch technique showed no statistical difference when used with either of the two composites. The acid-etch technique showed better marginal adaptation than the self-etch technique. When the giomer (Beautifil II, Shofu) was used with the total-etch technique, it showed better adaptation than when used with the self-etch technique but overall showed more marginal leakage than the composites. Conclusion: The total-etch technique provided better marginal adaptation for the composites and giomer compared to the self-etch technique. Clinical Significance: The demand for esthetic restorations continues to increase, and composite restorations are now considered the material of choice for Class II cavities. There are various concerns with composite restorations, one of them being good marginal adaptation to increase the life of the restoration. This study evaluated marginal leakage with the nanohybrid composite Filtek Z250 XT, fine hybrid composite SwissTEC, and a giomer when used with the total-etch technique and self-etch technique and reported satisfactory adaptation with the total-etch technique.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6017, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552174Pages 146-155, Language: English
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) on an etch-and rinse adhesive to dentin. Caries-free molars were selected and processed to expose a flat dentin surface. The specimens were bonded with a composite resin by an etch-and-rinse adhesive, which was pretreated with 2% CHX for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated before and after thermocycling. No significant differences were observed between groups before thermocycling. The 60-second CHX-pretreated group showed a significantly greater MTBS than the control group after thermocycling. The 2% CHX pretreatment could improve the bonding strength of the etch-and-rinse adhesive and slow down the aging progress of the bonding interface.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6294, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879055Pages 156-167, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser conditioning on dentin bond strength and nanoleakage of different universal and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 intact human third molar teeth were cut at the dentin level, and half of them were laser conditioned. The specimens were divided into three groups; two different universal resins and one self-etch adhesive resin were applied and composite resin restorations were created. For the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test, 20 microspecimens were prepared from the laser and control group of each adhesive (n = 20) and tested with a universal device. For nanoleakage observation, 10 specimens were prepared from each group (n = 10) and stored in silver nitrate solution, and then the amount of nanoleakage was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s honestly significant difference, and chi-square tests. Results: The mean dentin bond strength of all adhesives in the laser groups was found to be statistically significantly lower than those of the control groups (P < .05). No difference was found between the mean bond strength of the adhesives in the laser and control groups (P > .05). Higher nanoleakage was observed in all adhesives in the laser groups compared to the control groups (P < .05). Conclusions: Irradiation of the dentin surface with Er,Cr:YSGG could adversely affect the µTBS and nanoleakage, likely by affecting the structure of the hybrid layer.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6293, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879056Pages 168-180, Language: English
The Custom Alveolar Ridge Splitting (CARS) technique was recently reported as a less-invasive treatment option for augmentation of the maxillary anterior area in cases where alveolar width deficiency exists due to bone resorption and remodeling. This technique creates an intraosseous defect to improve success when horizontal ridge augmentation is attempted. The purpose of the present case report was to demonstrate implant placement in an atrophic posterior mandibular site using the CARS technique. This technique was used in the mandibular right second premolar area, followed by placement of a single implant. The restored implant showed stable soft and hard tissue outcomes at 6 months postloading.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6031, PubMed ID (PMID): 37338924Pages 181-194, Language: English
Few studies have reported the outcomes of short implants with a follow-up time > 10 years. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of short locking-taper implants supporting single crowns in the posterior region. Patients who received these supporting implants (≤ 8 mm) in the posterior region from 2008 to 2010 were included. The clinical and radiographic outcomes and patient satisfaction were recorded. A total of 18 patients with 34 implants were included. The cumulative survival rate was 91.4% and 83.3% at implant and patient levels, respectively. Tooth brushing habit and history of periodontitis were significantly associated with implant failure (P < .05). The median marginal bone loss (MBL) was 0.24 mm (IQR: 0.01 to 0.98 mm). Biologic and technical complications occurred in 14.7% and 17.8% of implants, respectively. The mean modified Sulcus Bleeding Index was 0.52 ± 0.63, and the mean peri-implant probing depth was 2.38 ± 0.79 mm. All patients were at least quite satisfied, with the majority of patients (88.9%) being fully satisfied with the treatment. Within the limitations of this study, the short locking-taper implants supporting single crowns in the posterior region achieved promising outcomes in the long-term follow-up.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6137, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879057Pages 195-204, Language: English
Recurrent benign gingival lesions occurring in the anterior dentition are clinical dilemmas. While complete removal of such lesions is required to prevent recurrence, this can result in a poor esthetic outcome. Relative to this conundrum, this report discusses the diagnosis, psychologic management, and clinical treatment of two patients with recurring lesions on the facial gingiva of the mandibular and maxillary incisors, respectively. Patient A, a 55-year-old woman, presented with a recurrent peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF); Patient B, a 76-year-old man, presented with a recurrent pyogenic granuloma (PG). Both patients underwent multiple procedures and were ultimately treated without lesion recurrence. The efficacious surgical treatment of recurrent gingival lesions like POF and PG requires an aggressive approach involving lesion removal of the lesion as well as a 1.0- to 2.0-mm margin of normal tissue, underlying alveolar bone, and associated periodontal ligament (PDL). The rationale for this approach stresses the potential periodontal and esthetic ramifications that were considered. In summary, when recurrent benign gingival lesions are localized to the anterior part of the mouth, the approach to their surgical removal should be modified to minimize the extent of gingival recession and other potential esthetic issues.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6226, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879058Pages 205-216, Language: English
Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the influence of prosthetic features on marginal bone level changes around bone-level implants with an external hex connection. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with 166 implants and cemented crowns were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Prosthetic features were radiographically evaluated, including emergence angle (EA), emergence profile (EP), crown-implant ratio (CIR), and abutment height. Marginal bone levels were measured on intraoral radiographs taken at baseline and after at least 1 year. The correlation between prosthetic features and marginal bone loss (MBL) was then investigated. Results: The mean follow-up time was 43.94 months. Implant length varied between 5 and 13 mm. The mean height of the abutments used was 1.55 mm. EA measured an average 30.62 degrees (± 13.20) mesially and 29.45 degrees (± 13.07) distally. The CIR was 0.99 (± 0.26). The mean MBL was 0.19 mm on the mesial side and 0.20 mm on distal side of the implants. Significant positive associations emerged between MBL and implant length (P < .005) and with EA (P < .05). A convex profile of the crown was shown to be associated with a higher distal MBL (P = .025) compared to concave and straight profiles.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6212, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879059Pages 217-226, Language: English
Objectives: To quantify the buccal bone thickness, area, and perimeter following guided bone regeneration (GBR) using stabilizing periosteal sutures. The loss in hard tissue volume may impair proper implant placement. GBR has been used to regenerate the lost alveolar ridge prior to or at the same time as dental implant placement. The most important factor for GBR success is graft stability. The periosteal mattress suture (PMS) stabilizing technique is an alternative to pins and screws to stabilize bone grafting material and has the advantage of not requiring the removal of the fixing devices. Materials and Methods: A CBCT was acquired before and 6 months after surgery from six patients who underwent GBR with the PMS stabilizing technique. Images were analyzed for buccal bone thickness, area, and perimeter. Results: The mean change in buccal bone thickness was 3.42 mm (± 1.31 SD) and proved statistically significant (P = .005). The mean change in bone crest area also proved statistically significant (P = .001). No significant difference was found in bone perimeter (P = .12). Conclusions: The PMS technique delivered optimal results without clinical complications. This study shows the potential of this technique as an alternative to pins or screws for graft stabilization in the esthetic zone.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6163, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879060Pages 227-234, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the effects of experience level on the clinical and esthetic results of coronally advanced flap (CAF) surgery. Material and Methods: A postgraduate student’s first 40 CAF operations in the periodontology residency program were followed. The Miller Class I gingival recessions were divided into four chronologic groups (n: 10 in each). Clinical and esthetic evaluations were performed at baseline and after 6 months. The results of chronologic intervals were statistically compared. Results: While the overall mean root coverage (RC) percentage was 73.6% and the complete RC was 60%, the mean RC percentages of the groups, respectively, were 45%, 55%, 86%, and 95%, showing that the mean and complete RC percentage increased as the experience level increased (P < .05). Similarly, as the experience level increased, closure of the gingival recession depth and width and esthetic scores increased, while the surgical time decreased significantly (P < .05). Complications were observed in three patients during the first interval and in two patients during the second interval, while no complications were observed in the other groups. Conclusions: This study showed that experience level can significantly affect the clinical and esthetic outcomes, operative time, and complication rates of CAF surgery. All education programs should determine how many of each surgical procedure residents must perform before they are considered experienced or expert surgeons who can work independently and predictably achieve safe, acceptable outcomes.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6380, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552178Pages 235-243, Language: English
An accurate assessment of the disease extent and lesion size is needed for appropriate therapy decisions of endodontic-periodontic (endo-perio) lesions. CBCT imaging with less radiation and high spatial resolution can provide a comprehensive evaluation of endo-perio lesions. A total of 71 teeth with endo-perio lesions were assessed using CBCT. Periodontal bone defects were studied for bone loss pattern (horizontal/vertical) along with bone loss levels on mesial and distal sides in association with furcation involvement. The periapical lesions were studied for their prevalence and extent based on CBCT PAI Score. Horizontal and vertical bone loss were detected in 54 teeth (76.1%) and 17 teeth (23.95%), respectively. Mean crestal bone loss levels on mesial and distal aspects were 4.80 ± 3.21 mm and 5.74 ± 3.91 mm, respectively. The mean height, width, and depth of furcation defects were 3.19 ± 2.99 mm, 1.94 ± 0.98 mm, and 4.44 ± 1.92 mm, respectively. Periapical lesions were recorded in 55 teeth (77.5%). A CBCT PAI score of 5 was scored in 35 teeth with a mean lesion diameter of 11.3 ± 2.83 mm, while 16 teeth had healthy periapical tissues (scores of 0 and 1). CBCT is a valuable diagnostic tool that can help assess endo-perio lesions by providing morphometric measurements of periodontal bone defects and the extent of associated periapical lesions.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6232, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879061Pages 244-254, Language: English
This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of xenogeneic collagen membrane (XCM) derived from porcine peritoneum in combination with a coronally advanced flap (CAF) in the management of gingival recession defects and to compare the outcomes to those of connective tissue grafts (CTGs). A total of 12 systemically healthy individuals presenting with 30 isolated/multiple Cairo RT 1/2 gingival recession defects in maxillary canines and premolars were randomly treated either with CAF + XCM or CAF + CTG. Recession height (RH), gingival biotype (GB), gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), and width of attached gingiva (WAG) were recorded at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patient perceptions of pain and esthetics and the modified root coverage esthetic score (MRES) were also documented. From baseline to 12 months, both groups showed a significant reduction in mean RH (CAF + CTG: 2.73 ± 0.79 mm to 0.33 ± 0.61 mm; CAF + XCM: 2.73 ± 0.88 mm to 1.20 ± 0.77 mm). At 12 months, CAF + CTG sites had a mean root coverage percentage (MRC%) of 85.60% ± 28.74%, whereas CAF + XCM sites had an MRC% of 55.13% ± 31.22%. CAF + CTG–treated sites had significantly better outcomes, with a greater number of sites achieving complete root coverage (n = 11) and higher MRES scores than the porcine peritoneal membrane group (P < .05).
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6442, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552179Pages 255-263, Language: English
Over the past two decades, the Khoury plate technique has been widely utilized with much success to facilitate bone augmentation in critically deficient bone areas. Simply, the technique includes harvesting autogenous bone plates and utilizing them with external screw fixation. The rigidity of the bone plates enclosing the bony defect on both the buccal and lingual surfaces allows for tension-free bone remodeling to occur, favoring an ideal bone-forming environment. Following, a 4- to 6-month healing period, a flap is raised, screws may be removed, and implants are placed. With advancements made in tissue engineering, a novel mineral-organic resorbable bone adhesive (MORBA) formulated from underwater biomimetic marine proteins has recently been utilized for immediate bone-to-bone or bone-to-metal fixation. MORBA is a synthetic, injectable, self-setting, and resorbable load-bearing adhesive biomaterial that exhibits over 300 pounds of fixation strength. The unique adhesive properties of MORBA enable it to immediately stabilize dental implants into host bone. The present article describes a novel modification of the Khoury plate technique that utilizes MORBA as a substitute for screws during bone plate fixation. A step-by-step protocol is described that utilizes this novel biomaterial, favoring a more biologic approach to this conventional technique. This novel modification is surgically easier to conduct and is a more biocompatible option that avoids screw fixation and removal.
Keywords: Khoury plate, Khoury technique, Tetranite, bone adhesive, bone glue
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6152, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879062Pages 264-282, Language: English
Periodontal intrabony defects (IBDs) are commonly encountered in dental practice and are usually treated by open flap debridement (OFD) with or without bone grafts and/or guided tissue regeneration (GTR), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), or other additives. A difficulty with these approaches is maintaining the space for bone growth at the determined location. In this report, autologous sticky bone (ASB) was used and compared to a simple mixture of PRF and bone graft (PRF-BG) using the identical graft material—bioactive glass morsels—to assess its regenerative potential in IBDs, as sticky bone is known to maintain the space, according to previous research. A total of 21 IBDs were treated by OFD, PRF-BG mixture, or ASB. Regenerative assessment was clinically and radiographically performed by CBCT at 1 year. All the treatment modalities (OFD, PRF-BG, and ASB) showed statistically significant improvements clinically and radiographically at 1 year in terms of probing pocket depth reduction (PPDR), clinical attachment level gain (CALG), CBCT defect fill (CBCT-DF), and CBCT defect resolution (CBCT-DR); P < .05. The ASB group depicted the most favorable results (P < .05) in terms of the parameters at 1 year followed by the PRF-BG group and then the OFD group. Treatment of periodontal IBDs with ASB resulted in significant improvements in clinical and CBCT parameters compared to baseline at 1 year, and intrasurgical graft handling was much better in the ASB group.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6075, PubMed ID (PMID): 37879063Pages 283-294, Language: English
Esthetics is important for any dental implant but crucial for implants in the anterior region. Restorations in this region are demanding, and the goal of re-establishing an attractive smile without revealing differences from the natural teeth is difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical success of the socket-shield technique regarding soft tissue stability and overall esthetic outcome. Pink esthetic scores (PESs) were collected at two time points (T1: 6 months; T2: 6 years) by three different specialists. This prospective cohort clinical study involved 30 patients (7 women and 23 men) with a mean age of 42.3 years. There were no significant differences in PES values assessed by the oral surgeon and prosthodontist (P > .05) at either of the assigned time points. The periodontist found differences in PES values between T1 and T2 (P < .05), but they were modest in value. Analyses of each individual variable at given time intervals revealed significant differences in the shape of the distal papillae (χ2 = 6.182; P < .05) and soft tissue margin level (χ2 = 6.507; P < .05). The final results suggest that the socket-shield technique is promising for implant placement in the esthetic zone.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6132, PubMed ID (PMID): 36856732Pages 295-306, Language: English
Osteoporosis is an increasingly prevalent disease. The development of an osteoporosis-like experimental animal model is of great importance for the study of peri-implant osteogenesis in osteoporosis. The present authors aimed to establish a rapid modeling method of osteoporotic rabbits for implant-bone analysis and validate whether the models can affect the implant osseointegration. The present study included 29 female New Zealand rabbits (age: 5 to 6 months). Two rabbits were lost during anesthetization. Of the remaining 27 rabbits, 18 received an ovariectomy, with 9 receiving dexamethasone injections for 8 weeks (OVX+D group) and 9 receiving equivalent-volume saline injections (OVX group). As a control group, the remaining 9 rabbits were sham-operated and received an equivalent volume of normal saline (SHAM group). Then, serum biochemical markers of bone metabolism were detected and densitometric measurements were performed. Implants were then placed in the tibias of each rabbit. Bone samples (including implants) were obtained after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of healing and were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric analyses. The results showed that the OVX+D group experienced a 32% reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline. The BMD of the OVX+D group was significantly lower than that of the SHAM and OVX groups. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) blood concentrations of in the OVX+D group were increased significantly. The osteoporotic rabbits exhibited marked decreases in osseointegration, characterized by slowed bone formation and decreased bone-to-implant contact (BIC). The combination of an ovariectomy and dexamethasone injections could experimentally induce osteoporosis in rabbits in the short term, which can be used as an appropriate animal model to study the osseointegration of implants under osteoporosis.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6100, PubMed ID (PMID): 37338925Pages 307-313, Language: English
A retrospective chart review was conducted of CBCT images captured between November 2019 and April 2021 on patients who underwent dental implant placement and had a periodontal charting. The buccal and lingual bone thickness around the implants was measured as an average of three measurements taken from the buccal and lingual aspects of implants. Implants with peri-implantitis were placed in Group 1, and implants with peri-implant mucositis or good peri-implant health were placed in Group 2. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the differences between the bone thicknesses of the groups. In total, 93 CBCT radiographs were screened, and 15 CBCT images with both an implant and corresponding periodontal charting were analyzed. Of the 15 implants examined, 5 presented with peri-implantitis (33%), 1 with peri-implant mucositis, and 9 with good peri-implant health. Within the limitations of this study, buccal bone thickness averaging ≥ 1.10 mm or midlingual probing depths ≤ 3.4 mm correlates with a more favorable peri-implant response. Larger studies are needed to substantiate these findings.
Supplement Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6295, PubMed ID (PMID): 37966356Pages 314-325, Language: English
Minimally invasive nonsurgical treatment (MINST) aims to remove an etiology with minimal damage to the healthy periodontium and provide the ideal healing environment. This case series introduces the novel protocol of laser-assisted MINST (LAMINST), combining minimally invasive surgery with a dental laser. A total of 25 patients (32 teeth) with advanced periodontal disease were enrolled and received periodontal treatment by following the LAMINST protocol. Probing depth (PD), recession, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque presence, and site mobility were evaluated preoperatively and at 6 months. Based on the periodontal evaluations, all cases were diagnosed as stage III grade C periodontitis. Six months after LAMINST, the average PD reduction was 4.44 mm and CAL improved by 4.38 mm. Baseline mobility scores of 1 (6 teeth), 2 (9 teeth), and 3 (3 teeth) decreased to 1 (5 teeth) or 0 (13 teeth). The initial prognoses of 5 (hopeless; 15 teeth), 4 (questionable; 13 teeth), and 3 (poor; 4 teeth), improved to 4 (5 teeth), 3 (12 teeth), 2 (fair; 13 teeth), and 1 (good; 2 teeth). The number of BOP sites reduced from 179 to 12, and the number of plaque sites reduced from 173 to 9. All clinical parameters were improved after LAMINST. The application of LAMINST may overcome the traditional limitations of nonsurgical treatment, such as poor accessibility.