DOI: 10.11607/prd.2023.1.ePages 10, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6027Pages 13-20, Language: English
Various gingival depigmentation techniques have been introduced to realize esthetic gingival color enhancement. Unfortunately, many of these procedures have nonesthetic outcomes, have the potential to damage the gingiva and connective tissues, subject the patient to postoperative pain, and do not offer long-term efficacy. The proper combined application of a 4.0-MHz radiofrequency and specialized electrode brush may result in the selective and complete removal of melanocytes from the gingival epithelium down to and including the basal layer, with minimal to no effect on the connective tissue. This article presents a case report and histopathologic examination to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of this technique for achieving uniform pink gingival appearance.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6326Pages 23-27, Language: English
Following the extraction of a compromised tooth, the edentulous alveolar ridge undergoes physiologic bone remodeling, which may create a bone volume too deficient for implant placement. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) provides a predictable treatment option to increase the alveolar bone volume for implant placement, but a soft or hard tissue deficiency may remain even after this augmentation procedure has been completed. These deficiencies can be especially challenging in the esthetic zone, where patient expectations and esthetics often determine the satisfaction of the treatment outcome. This paper presents a case report of a xenograft bone substitute used at the second-stage surgery and abutment insertion to provide a solution to these deficiencies even after the patient had undergone a GBR procedure, thus improving the esthetic and functional outcomes of the final implant-supported restoration.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6364Pages 29-37, Language: English
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, clinically and via CBCT, the long-term efficacy of a bioresorbable polylactic acid membrane combined with deproteinized bovine bone graft (DBBM) and compare it to enamel matrix derivative (EMD) combined with DBBM graft in the treatment of class II furcation defects. Sites were randomly assigned to the test group (Guidor Matrix Barrier + Bio-Oss) or the control group (Emdogain + Bio-Oss). Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (REC), and keratinized tissue (KT) width were assessed at 12 and 24 months, and radiographic bone gain was investigated at 24 months via CBCT. Both groups showed a significant radiographic bone fill and clinical gain. The combination of Emdogain + Bio-Oss showed better clinical outcomes and less complications, though this difference was not statistically significant.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5512Pages 39-45, Language: English
Buccal bone walls present significant resorption after tooth extraction, possibly related to the smaller bone thickness, length, and the sagittal position of the root, as well as the bone morphology. The goal of the present study was to measure the thickness of the cortical bone of the vestibular and palatal walls in the anterior maxilla by means of CBCT images. Measurements were taken from CBCT scans of 300 maxillary anterior teeth from 50 patients (25 women, 25 men) aged 18 to 30 years. The parameters evaluated included the thickness of the buccal and palatal cortical bone in the cervical, apical, and middle thirds of the root, as well as six specific angular measurements from each tooth. The lateral incisors showed a significant difference in thickness between each of the buccal and palatal thirds, and measurements were also significantly smaller than the central and canine incisors. Bone anatomy is tooth-and location-specific, and thus the sagittal root position within the alveolus influences the regional bone morphology and may explain the gingival zenith position in the anterior maxilla. These specific buccal and palatal anatomic parameters should be carefully taken into consideration for surgical planning and intervention in the esthetic area.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5769Pages 47-54, Language: English
A recently released commercially available novel porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) appears to possess acceptable biologic and clinical properties to be considered as an acceptable soft tissue replacement material. The aim of these three case reports is to present the treatment of multiple gingival recession by means of different variations of the tunnel and PADM as well as the clinical outcomes obtained at 3 years postoperatively. The healing outcomes demonstrated only minor surgical complications, with minimal patient-reported discomfort. At 3 years postoperative, ideal functional and esthetic outcomes were observed. PADM seems to be a promising xenogeneic soft tissue substitute. Further studies with a higher number of patients and defects are necessary to confirm the present findings.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5715Pages 56-63, Language: English
Management of peri-implantitis is becoming an increasing issue for implantologists and periodontists. The need for bone augmentation is more and more frequent, especially in the posterior maxilla requiring sinus augmentation. Peri-implantitis represents a real danger for implants, but to this day, the available literature concerning the impact of this disease on regenerated bone and on maxillary sinus pathology is very limited. This report presents two cases showing bone alterations due to peri-implantitis and its possible impact on maxillary sinus health. In both cases, the causal implant was removed regardless of prior functional endoscopic surgery to restore sinus health, and it was not necessary to implement any reconstruction procedure because bone regeneration occurred naturally. Further research will be necessary to confirm these initial findings.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6139Pages 65-72, Language: English
This study evaluated bone behavior during dynamic osseointegration. A total of 12 implants were placed in sheep tibia and analyzed at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. Quantitative and qualitative bone behaviors were evaluated with histologic, histomorphometric, Alizarin Red S, and SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) analysis. Twenty microanalyses were performed in chambers 1, 3, and 5 (a chamber is the distinctive space/bone volume between two coils of the implant screw) in distinctive zones: the titanium-bone interface (zone A), the middle chamber-bone front (zone B), the bone-surgical threading interface (zone C), and native bone (zone D; used as a control). The dynamic osseointegration index (DOI) and bone quality index (BQI) with calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) content were detected to evaluate the osseointegration quality, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone density around implants. At 15 days, initial bone formation with osteoid matrix deposition and different color intensities were observed (means: BIC = 23.3% ± 3.9%; DOI = 1.55). SEM-EDX analysis showed low mineralized bone/bone marrow with a very low Ca/P mean value. At 30 days, high new bone deposition with higher color intensity in the crestal portion was recorded (BIC = 77.3% ± 0.4%; DOI = 2.58). At 90 days, tight BIC to the middle and apical implant portions were detected, as well as several osteon structures in the crestal portion (BIC = 86.4% ± 0.6%; DOI = 0.96). During all observed time periods, the BQI showed 25% more Ca/P in zone A. Greater maturation degree and lower BQI were seen at zone A compared to the other zones. After 15 and 30 days, zones B and C (except for P in zone B) showed BQIs slightly over 50% and around 75%, respectively, confirming a progressively higher degree of bone maturation that proceeds with the osseointegration process. After 90 days, the BQI values of zones B and C (greater than 70% in zone B and around 90% in zone C) confirmed the bone mineralization and maturation process and an acceleration of implant osseointegration, while a lower BQI value (25%) was recorded in zone A. This study shows osseointegration as a variable dynamic process with a higher bone deposition in contact with the implant surface during the early phase, while in the active and later osseointegration times, the bone quality maturation showed higher values only "at distance" (growth of native bone to the implant surface, observed later in the osseointegration process). After 3 months (before loading), the BQI evaluation was lower (25%) in zone A, confirming that the healing and maturation process of the bone cannot be considered complete.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6173Pages 75-83, Language: English
This study aimed to calculate the 3-year dimensional change in crestal bone width when dental implants placed in postextraction sockets underwent two alternative techniques for alveolar preservation. Fresh sockets that had undergone immediate implant placement were categorized into one of two groups depending on the procedure type. For the xenogeneic biomaterial grafted (BG) group, the gaps between the metallic implant surfaces and the bony walls were filled with corticocancellous porcine bone; in the anatomical cap group, in which patients were treated with guided tissue healing (GTH), cross-linkable acrylic resin caps were immediately screwed on the implants. Absolute measurements of the alveolar width were performed on 3D images acquired before tooth extraction (thereby ensuring correct surgical treatment) and 3 years after surgery. Nonparametric statistics were performed, with the level of significance set at 1%. The results of 46 implants (placed in 36 patients) were analyzed, and 100% survival rates were reported for both groups at 3 years postsurgery. Minor swelling of treated areas was observed the first few days of healing, but neither mucositides, dehiscence events, nor suppurations occurred. At 3 years postsurgery, loss in alveolar ridge width was higher for the BG group (-1.1 ± 0.6 mm) than for the GTH group (0.0 ± 0.3 mm); moreover, these changes were significantly different (P < .0001). This clinical and radiographic data analysis suggests that the implant sites that received a xenogeneic filling material were less effective in maintaining the preoperative alveolar bone width than sites that underwent GTH with immediate implants and anatomical tooth-shaped caps.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5368Pages 87-93, Language: English
A failed implant site is prone to reduced alveolar bone volume, both horizontally and vertically. The present study assessed the outcome of using cancellous bone block allografts for ridge reconstruction following the removal of failed implants associated with severe bone loss. Individuals presenting with failed implants and massive bone loss were included. Cancellous bone block allografts were used for reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridge. Radiographic evaluation at 6 months postgrafting revealed favorable bone healing, allowing implant placement. Bone biopsy samples were taken during implant placement. Twenty-four blocks and 58 implants were placed in 16 patients. Over a mean follow-up time of 40 ± 15 months, the mean bone gain was 5 ± 0.5 mm horizontally and 7 ± 0.5 mm vertically. Block and implant survival rates were 96% (1 block failed) and 95% (3 implants failed), respectively. Histomorphometrically, the mean percentage of newly formed bone was 40%, with 20% residual cancellous block allograft and 40% marrow and connective tissue. Cancellous bone block allograft is a viable treatment alternative for reconstructing the alveolar ridge to achieve a successful second reimplantation, even in the presence of initial severe bone loss.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6352Pages 95-102, Language: English
These case reports present a surgical technique to improve the clinical attachment level and cover the exposed root surface in Cairo Class III situations associated with a one- to two-wall combined intrabony defect in the anterior area. The tunnel wall approach combined previously described concepts and placed a CTG into a modified tunnel-type flap through a vertical releasing incision. The CTG acted both as a buccal soft tissue wall to stabilize the blood clot and as a space maintainer to coronally move the tissue. The decontaminated root surfaces were treated with enamel matrix derivative, and a bone filler material was placed from the bottom of the intrabony defect up to the cementoenamel junction to support the proximal soft tissue architecture. Healing of the four presented sites was uneventful. Clinical measurements up to 12 months showed significant probing depth reduction, clinical attachment gain, and coverage of the buccal recession in each case. Papilla improvement was reported in three cases. Radiographic examinations confirmed intrabony defect healing and the presence of embedded bone filler material in the soft tissue above the bone crest. The tunnel wall approach seems to be a valuable option to safely enhance the clinical attachment level and cover the exposed root in Cairo Class III situations associated with a one- to two-wall combined intrabony defect in the anterior area.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6065Pages 105-111, Language: English
This investigation was designed to evaluate crestal bone stability and soft tissue maintenance to Laser-Lok tapered tissue-level implants. Twelve patients presenting with an edentulous site adequate for the placement of two implants were recruited from four dental offices (2 to 4 patients per office). Each patient received two Laser-Lok tissue-level implants placed with a 3-mm interimplant distance according to a surgical stent. The implants were placed so that the Laser-Lok zone sat at the junction between hard and soft tissues. A total of 24 implants were placed, and all achieved satisfactory crestal bone stability and soft tissue maintenance 1 year after receiving the final prosthetic restoration.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6264Pages 113-119, Language: English
The aim of current split-mouth study was to compare the implant treatment outcomes of hybrid-surface implants (minimally rough implant collar and moderately rough body) with moderately rough implants after 5 years in patients with a bar-supported mandibular overdenture. Fully edentulous patients were enrolled, and each patient received two implants: one moderately rough and one hybrid-surface implant. A total of 18 patients with 36 implants attended the 5-year recall, and the implant survival rate was 100%. The 5-year evaluation showed no significant difference in crestal bone loss or peri-implant health between the hybrid and moderately rough implants.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5461Pages 121-127, Language: English
Several factors in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the likelihood of excessive occlusal loads. Increased occlusal loads may compromise a tooth’s mechanical resistance. This prospective controlled study assessed the frequency of OSA in patients presenting with tooth fracture. Patients with and without tooth fractures were selected in a consecutive manner from a private dental clinic between February 2018 and January 2020. Demographic and dental variables were registered. A parafunctional habits questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and validated respiratory polygraphy were performed. Descriptive, comparative, and correlation statistical analyses were performed. Multiple regression analysis was also performed. Fifty-nine patients were included, and 29 presented tooth fracture. Patients with a tooth fracture formed the case group and patients without tooth fracture formed the control group. Patient age was significantly higher in the case group (59 ± 13 years) compared to the control group (44 ± 11 years). Most of the fractured teeth were molars, had a natural tooth as an antagonist, and were not endodontically treated. Twenty-one patients had OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: ≥ 5 events per hour) in the case group compared with 12 patients in the control group (P = .027). Moreover, the patients in the case group had a significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index (P = .000). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age had a significant effect on tooth fracture (P = .002). However, there was a statistically significant relationship between OSA and the presence of tooth fracture in patients aged ≥ 40 years (P = .041). OSA was more frequent in patients presenting with tooth fractures.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6384Pages e1-e9, Language: English
This investigation was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (laser group) compared to conventional mechanical debridement (control group) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. In a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 32 patients with 88 implants with peri-implantitis were randomly assigned to either group. Statistical analyses were performed at 9 months for both groups. The laser-treated group showed a statistically significant reduction in probing depth (PD) compared to the control group (P = .04), but no statistically significant differences were observed for clinical attachment level gain (P = .29) or reduction of bleeding on probing (P = .09). In the subgroup analysis, mandibular single implants with screw-retained restorations treated with Er,Cr:YSGG demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in PD (P < .05) compared to all other groups. A complete resolution of peri-implantitis was achieved in 21% of implants in the test group and 5% of implants in the control group. Er,Cr:YSGG laser is an efficacious therapeutic tool to treat peri-implantitis, achieving greater PD reduction than conventional mechanical debridement alone. Er,Cr:YSGG laser also showed increased benefits in the treatment of mandibular, screw-retained, and single-unit implants compared to the sole use of conventional mechanical debridement.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.4909Pages e11-e18, Language: English
Immediate implant placement and provisionalization with subepithelial connective tissue graft is considered the reference therapy for achieving a good esthetic outcome, especially in cases with a thin periodontal phenotype. Positioning sutures are usually required to maintain graft stability. This article describes the use of a modified suture technique involving vertical/horizontal double-parallel mattress sutures in immediate implant placement to achieve stable passive fixation of the graft in the appropriate position and to provide a more equal distribution of tension in the wound. A novel, simplified, reproducible technique is described in two cases of immediate implant placement and provisionalization with subepithelial connective tissue grafting and double-parallel mattress sutures.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5629Pages e19-e26, Language: English
Preexisting hard and soft tissue defects around hopeless teeth can impede the ideal esthetic and functional outcomes of implant therapy. Orthodontic extrusion has been described as a predictable nonsurgical alternative for vertical hard and soft tissue augmentation, commonly through the use of orthodontic brackets on multiple adjacent teeth. This case report describes an alternative technique via orthodontic extrusion, utilizing a digitally designed and milled fixed provisional restoration. The provisional restoration served as an anchor in the forced eruption of a maxillary lateral incisor for the development of a future implant site. Following forced eruption and a subsequent stabilization period, immediate implant placement was successfully completed with a customized healing abutment to preserve the soft tissue architecture. The use of a fixed provisional restoration as an anchor for orthodontic extrusion allows for predictable implant site development while maintaining favorable esthetics throughout the treatment.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5707Pages e27-e34, Language: English
This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the peri-implant soft tissue remodeling, marginal bone levels, and implant success rate of immediately placed single implants-which received a definitive zirconia abutment and provisional restoration at implant placement-in the maxillary esthetic zone. The final crown was delivered 7 days later. Patients (n = 26) presenting a single extraction-indicated lateral or central incisor with adequate bone volume were eligible for this study. Mesial and distal papilla levels (MPL and DPL, respectively), facial gingival level (FGL), and mesial and distal marginal bone levels (MMBL and DMBL, respectively) were assessed after 7 days and at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months. Patients were classified according to gingival phenotype: thin (≤ 2 mm) or thick (> 2 mm). After 1 year, the implant success rate was 100%. Mean soft tissue recession was -0.04 ± 0.15 mm (MPL), -0.09 ± 0.02 mm (DPL), and -0.13 ± 0.18 mm (FGL). Mean bone remodeling at 1 year was 0.12 ± 0.17 mm (MMBL) and 0.13 ± 0.18 mm (DMBL). The marginal interproximal bone was above the implant platform in 100% of sites. Patients with thick phenotype showed significantly less papillary recession than thin-phenotype patients. Minimal peri-implant hard and soft tissue changes were observed at the 1-year follow-up.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5711Pages e35-e42, Language: English
Autogenous particulate bone grafts are being utilized in oral implantology for minor grafting procedures. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the bone-harvesting technique, donor age, and donor site on proliferation and differentiation of human primary osteoblast-like cells in the cell culture. Autogenous bone particles (20 samples) were harvested from the maxilla and mandible during surgery using two different protocols, and two types of particulate bone grafts were collected: bone chips and bone sludge. Bone samples were cultured in growth medium and, after 2 to 3 weeks, the cells that grew from bone grafts were cultured in the normal and osteogenic medium for 0, 4, 7, and 20 days. DNA, alkaline-phosphatase (ALP), calcium-content measurements, and Alizarin red/toluidine blue staining were performed. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni test. The level of statistical significance was set at 5% (P < .05). Total DNA, ALP, and calcium content were significantly higher for the bone chip samples compared to the bone sludge samples. Total DNA and ALP content were significantly higher for the patients in age group 1 (≤ 60 years) compared to age group 2 (> 60 years) and was significantly higher for mandibular samples than maxillary samples on day 20. However, the calcium measurement showed no significant difference concerning donor age and donor site. Data analysis revealed that harvesting technique (bone chips vs bone sludge), donor age (≤ 60 years vs > 60 years), and donor site (maxilla vs mandible) influenced the osteogenic potential of the collected particulate bone graft. The bone chips were superior in terms of osteogenic efficacy and should be considered a suitable option for particulate bone graft collection.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5785Pages e43-e51, Language: English
Previous studies have demonstrated problems with implant-supported overdenture attachments, such as denture base fracture and retention loss of the attachment's nylon insert. In this study, three implants were surgically inserted at the anterior mandibular region of 16 completely edentulous men (mean age: 50 years), divided into two groups depending on the received mandibular complete overdenture: a conventional metal-reinforced framework with prefabricated metal housing (Group I) or a CAD/CAM metal-reinforced framework with custom metal housing (Group II). At 3 months (prostheses loading), 6 months, and 12 months after implant placement, the retention of the mandibular dentures and wear of O-ring attachments were evaluated. Data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using Student t test. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups and within the same groups during the evaluation period (P < .05). Attachment housing incorporated within a CAD/CAM implant overdenture can be a better alternative to the manufacturer's metal housing, as it diminishes retention loss and attachment wear over time, thus increasing patient satisfaction and chewing efficiency.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5026Pages e53-e60, Language: English
This study evaluated shear bond strength (SBS) of thermally aged composite resins repaired using different surface protocols. Four-hundred composite resin samples were made using the following materials (100 samples per material): Filtek Z350XT (FXT); Spectra Smart (SSM); IPS Empress Direct (EDI); and Forma (FOR). Each group's samples were then divided into 10 groups (n = 10 samples per group): G1: no surface treatment; G2: phosphoric acid-etching + universal-adhesive (PU); G3: surface roughening + PU (RPU); G4: RPU + silane (RPSU); G5: surface roughening + hydrofluoric acid-etching + universal adhesive (RHU); G6: RHU + silane (RHSU); G7: dry sandblast + PU (DsPU); G8: DsPU + silane (DsPSU); G9: wet sandblast + PU (WsPU); and G10: WsPU + silane (WsPSU). G1 was freshly repaired, and G2 to G10 were thermally aged before repair. Specimens were tested for SBS, and the failure type was observed with a magnifying loupe. Representative images were obtained using a scanning electronic microscope. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests (P = .05). Differences were detected among different surface treatments and among different composite resins with equal surface treatments (P < .05). SBS means ranged from 10.48 (FOR:G2) to 20.70 (FXT:G7). The highest SBS values were seen in G7 to G10 (P > .05), while lowest values were generally observed for G2. G1 showed higher results compared to G2 (P < .05), except for EDI (P > .05). Most failures corresponded with cohesive type. In general, thermally aged composite resin presented a decreased repair bond strength potential when no additional surface treatment was applied. Sandblasting improved the SBS of repaired aged composite resins.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.6002Pages e61-e71, Language: English
This study evaluated the efficacy of trapezoidal coronally advanced flap (tCAF), envelope coronally advanced flap (eCAF), and coronally advanced tunnel flap (TUN) in treating gingival recession (GR) through a network meta-analysis. Eligible articles from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases published up to September 2020 were selected to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on tCAF, eCAF, and TUN treatments. Sample size, treatment time, and outcome measures including complete root coverage (CRC), root coverage esthetic score (RES), and other data were extracted from the article, and integrated analysis was conducted. In total, 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria, involving 310 patients. Direct meta-analysis showed no significant differences in CRC among the three surgical methods; A significant difference was seen for RES, with TUN worse than tCAF (weighted mean difference: –0.73; 95% CI: –1.44, –0.02; P = .045). The network metaanalysis showed no statistical significance in the cross-comparison of tCAF, eCAF, and TUN. However, eCAF had the most significant effect on improving CRC (SUCRA = 69.2) and RES (SUCRA = 85.0). eCAF has the best prognosis in the treatment of GR, followed by tCAF and TUN. This may influence the surgeon’s treatment choice, as eCAF may be more effective in root coverage procedures.