DOI: 10.11607/prd.2023.6.e, PubMed ID (PMID): 37921605Pages 652-653, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6244, PubMed ID (PMID): 37921606Pages 655-663, Language: English
The aim of this case series was to evaluate the clinical performance of a new volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX) in combination with the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for the treatment of gingival recessions. Thirteen patients with a total of 33 maxillary RT1 single and multiple gingival recessions were included in the study. Probing pocket depth (PPD), recession width (RECW), recession depth (REC), height of keratinized tissue (HKT), and gingival thickness (GT) were assessed at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. Postoperative healing was uneventful in all cases without any complications. At 12 months, mean root coverage (MRC) was 92.88%, with complete root coverage (CRC) in 87.88% of treated sites. The present findings suggest that VCMX in combination with MCAT results in predictable coverage of maxillary RT1 gingival recessions. Further studies with larger sample sizes and control groups are needed to support these preliminary outcomes.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6148, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347611Pages 665-673, Language: English
Although connective tissue grafts (CTGs) have been found to increase gingival thickness and reduce facial gingival recession in immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIPP), they are associated with significant loss of buccal bone thickness. This loss is thought to be related to the preparation of the facial CTG recipient site. This technical report presents a modified dual-zone therapeutic concept in which the bone zone is grafted with bone graft and the tissue zone is grafted with tuberosity CTG without elevation of a facial partial- or full-thickness envelope.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6166, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347612Pages 675-685, Language: English
The primary aim of this study was to assess the histomorphometric outcomes of extraction sockets grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and sealed with a collagen membrane after 3 months of healing in specific region of interest (ROI) areas. The secondary aims were to analyze the biomaterial resorption rate, the bone-to-biomaterial contact (BBC), and the area and perimeter of grafted particles compared with commercially available FDBA particles. Fifteen patients underwent tooth extractions and ridge preservation procedures performed with FDBA and a collagen membrane. Bone biopsy samples were harvested after 3 months at the time of implant placement for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. Two areas of concern (ROI1 and ROI2) with different histologic features were identified within the biopsy samples; ROI1, ROI2, and commercially available particles were analyzed and compared. The following parameters were analyzed: newly formed bone, marrow space, residual graft particles, perimeter and area of FDBA particles, and BBC. The histomorphometric analysis showed 35.22% ± 10.79% newly formed bone, 52.55% ± 16.06% marrow spaces, and 12.41% ± 7.87% residual graft particles. Moreover, the histologic data from ROI1 and ROI2 showed that (1) the mean percentage of BBC was 64.61% ± 27.14%; (2) the newly formed bone was significantly higher in ROI1 than in ROI2; (3) the marrow space was significantly lower in ROI1 than in ROI2; and (4) the FDBA particles in ROI1 sites showed significantly lower area and perimeter when compared to commercially available FDBA particles. This latter data led to the hypothesis that FDBA particles embedded in newly formed bone undergo a resorption/remodeling process.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6331, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347614Pages 687-697, Language: English
This study clinically and histologically evaluated the outcome of a porcineapatite xenograft used to elevate the maxillary sinus floor in a severely atrophic ridge. A two-stage crestal window sinus elevation protocol was conducted in 24 patients with crestal bone ≤ 2 mm. Highly porous porcine carbonate apatite moistened with saline solution was placed in the elevated sinus cavity as the sole grafting material. Bone core biopsy samples were taken at 6, 9, and 12 months after sinus augmentation surgery (at implant placement). Treatment outcomes were assessed using microCT (μCT) and histologic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by post-hoc Dunn multiple comparison test. At 6 months after implant placement, all implants achieved good primary stability (insertion torque ≥ 30 Ncm) and successfully osseointegrated. The residual graft amount (mean ± SE) was low (11.91% ± 1.99%) at 6 months and further decreased (6.11% ± 2.64%) by 12 months. On the contrary, the amount of new bone detected was 18.94% ± 4.08% at 6 months and was significantly (P < .05) increased (40.16% ± 5.27%) at 12 months. Histologic assessment revealed osteoclasts actively resorbing the graft as well as osteoblasts actively forming new bone. In the severely atrophic maxilla, the porcine-apatite xenograft promotes new bone formation while being slowly absorbed. Within the limited sample size, the porcine-apatite xenograft seems to be a good graft material for crestal window sinus augmentation.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5534, PubMed ID (PMID): 37921607Pages 699-705, Language: English
This study assessed the effectiveness and predictability of a readily available protocol to treat peri-implantitis utilizing mechanical debridement, chemical antiseptic surface detoxification, and osseous grafting. Nine patients (7 women, 2 men; mean age: 56.5 years) with 15 implants with peri-implantitis were included. Pocket probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and standardized digital periapical radiographic measurements were taken. Surgical flaps were elevated, and the implant threads were cleaned with a plastic curette. Chemical decontamination was performed by scrubbing solutions of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) around the exposed implant using cotton pellets. Bony defects were filled with a 50/50 mixture of bovine hydroxyapatite and nanocrystalline calcium sulfate (CaSO4). A porcine collagen membrane was placed over the grafted bony defect. Follow-up appointments were scheduled 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed and compared. At baseline, PPD ranged from 5 to 7.5 mm (mean: 6 ± 0.7 mm). At 12 months, PPD ranged from 1.5 to 4.2 mm (mean: 2.5 ± 0.8 mm). The mean PPD reduction of 3.6 mm (59.2%) was statistically significant (P < .001). The number of bleeding sites around each test implant decreased significantly from 4 to 0.4 sites between baseline and 12 months (P < .001). Mean radiographic bone loss decreased from 4.8 ± 1.3 mm to 2.7 ± 1.2 mm (P < .001). The proposed method of mechanical decontamination, chemical detoxification, and bone regeneration is clinically effective and reproducible. Clinical peri-implant parameters and radiographic bone levels were improved and maintained their stability for 1 year using this peri-implantitis treatment protocol.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6222, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347610Pages 707-713, Language: English
Two fractured maxillary central incisors were restored via the crown fragment reattachment technique with adhesive systems and composite resin material. A long-term successful outcome was achieved after 4 years of follow-up. The patient presented with fractured maxillary central incisors, and a comprehensive intraoral and radiographic examination revealed that both teeth had extended crown fractures with no pulpal exposure (Class II, Ellis and Davey). The tooth fragments were thoroughly cleaned and inspected before being repositioned. Both fragments were in excellent condition with almost no pieces missing. Therefore, the proposed treatment was fragment reattachment. After verifying the repositioning and adaptation of the fractured fragments, a flowable composite was used to perform the reattachment procedure under rubber dam isolation. With modern dental adhesives, the reattachment of tooth fragments in good condition is considered a more conservative option for restoring tooth morphology, esthetics, and function. Although one tooth showed signs of irreversible pulpitis and required root canal treatment 2 weeks after the restoration, the clinical and radiographic evaluations at the 4-year follow-up visits confirmed the success of the restorative treatment. The restorations showed good functional and esthetic outcomes after 4 years of follow-up.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6094, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347613Pages 715-723, Language: English
The biggest challenge during periodontal regeneration in the anterior region is the prevention of soft tissue recession. Minimally invasive surgeries, particularly papilla preservation techniques and soft tissue augmentation, may significantly reduce such postoperative soft tissue recession. This article presents the vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA) approach for periodontal regeneration in the anterior region. A subperiosteal tunnel prepared from a single vertical vestibular incision adjacent to the defect is used for debridement, application of enamel matrix derivative, defect grafting with corticocancellous tuberosity bone, and insertion of the connective tissue graft. Evaluation of six cases with up to 6 years of follow-up showed improvements in all clinical parameters. The probing pocket depth improved from 8.2 ± 0.75 mm initially to 2.7 ± 0.52 mm at follow-up, clinical attachment level improved from 8.5 ± 0.83 mm initially to 2.7 ± 0.52 mm at follow-up, and midfacial gingival recession of 1 mm at two sites was corrected. The papillae were stable at all sites, with an average distance of 4.8 mm from the incisal edge to the papilla tip. This technique seems to be a promising approach for achieving both esthetic and functional goals of periodontal regenerative surgery. However, experience in performing microsurgeries and harvesting tuberosity tissues may be a limitation.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6101, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347615Pages 725-733, Language: English
Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface to the oral cavity, which creates an esthetic problem. The present study was attempted to compare vestibular incision subperiosteal tunnel access (VISTA) with and without advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the treatment of Miller Class I gingival recessions. A total of 24 patients were assigned randomly to either the test group (VISTA with A-PRF) or the control group (VISTA alone). Clinical parameters like recession depth, recession width, clinical attachment loss, width of keratinized gingiva, gingival thickness, and probing depth were recorded at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Intergroup comparison of mean root coverage (RC) in mm, %RC, change in width of keratinized gingiva and clinical attachment gain revealed no statistically significant difference (P > .05). Change in gingival thickness showed statistically significant improvement in test group. Within the limitations of this study, both treatment options (VISTA with A-PRF and VISTA alone) have resulted in predictable and comparable RC, with increased gingival thickness in the test group.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6229, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347616Pages 735-741, Language: English
Subperiosteal implants were first introduced in the early 1940s for the treatment of edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches with severe bone atrophy. After achieving widespread popularity in the 80s and 90s, this denture therapy was progressively abandoned due to significant technique limitations, including high rates of infection and the complications and difficulties with positioning implants and obtaining sufficiently extensive bone impressions. In the last two decades, digital technology has dramatically changed the world of implant dentistry. In particular, modern diagnostic imaging, digital technology, and direct metal laser sintering now allow for the projection of implants with the proper extension, leading to the fabrication of custom-made titanium meshes that perfectly fit the specific anatomical requirements of patients. With modern production methods, subperiosteal implants have been digitally reinterpreted, and interest in them is being renewed for the treatment of edentulous patients with atrophic arches. This article describes the evolution of subperiosteal implants in recent years and presents two clinical cases involving the placement of new generation (NG) subperiosteal implants with the clinical and radiographic findings at the 1-year follow-up.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6215, PubMed ID (PMID): 37347993Pages 743-751, Language: English
This retrospective study evaluated the survival rate and the clinical outcome of an endosseous implant system, as well as the marginal bone level (MBL) and the impact of the machined collar neck position on crestal bone level changes up to 2 years later. A total of 96 implants were placed in 57 patients and loaded with a final restoration after at least 3 months of healing: 15 implants were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets, and 81 were placed in healed ridges. Marginal bone loss around implants was determined radiographically at 12 to 24 months postloading. The effects on marginal bone loss of the site (mandible vs maxilla), location (anterior vs posterior), immediate vs delayed implant, smoking habit, sex, implant length and diameter, prosthesis type (screw-retained/cemented), and the machined collar position were evaluated. The implant survival rate was 98.96% at 1 year. The mean MBL decreased significantly (0.238 mm) between baseline and loading (P < .001; post hoc test) and decreased by 0.154 mm between loading and 1 year, but this was not significant (P = .085; post hoc tests). After 2 years, the mean MBL decreased significantly (0.263 mm) between baseline and loading (P < .001) and decreased by 0.111 mm between loading and 1 year and by 0.199 mm between loading and 2 years, but these were not significant (P > .05; post hoc tests). The mean bone loss after 1 and 2 years was not significantly associated with implant type or site, smoking habit, or type of implant surgery (P = .792). However, the mean bone loss was significantly associated with the type of prosthesis and was significantly greater for cemented prostheses compared to screw-retained prostheses. A supracrestal position of the machined collar (tissue level) was associated with no bone loss, while placing the collar below the alveolar crest led to bone loss over 2 years. Of the factors evaluated, marginal bone loss after 1 and 2 years was significantly associated with prosthesis type and the machined collar position.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6213, PubMed ID (PMID): 37921608Pages 753-761, Language: English
Currently, the incision design for periodontal and implant surgeries is mainly based on the surgeon’s personal preference. The primary aim of this study is to review the intricate periodontal microvascular system and to illustrate the potential impact of commonly applied flap designs on the integrity of this system. A complete literature electronic search resulted in 37 relevant articles. The maxillary, facial, and lingual arteries supply the microvasculature system, including the supraperiosteal, intraligamental, and intraosseous arterioles. These arterioles have their own territories yet are extensively interconnected. The impact of common papilla management techniques are discussed, including tunneling; papilla base, incision, and preservation; and flap-releasing incisions. Flap design can impact reperfusion and blood inflow in the early healing phase, which eventually influences wound closure probability, healing speed, surgical predictability, tissue volume change, and postoperative morbidity. Future studies on the three-dimensional distribution of microvasculature and clinical impact of various flap designs on tissue reperfusion can lead to evidence-based incision selection and improved wound-healing outcomes.