DOI: doi: 10.11607/prd.2023.4.ePages 410-412, Language: English
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6058, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552200Pages 415-422, Language: English
Performing soft tissue augmentation (STA) at implant sites to improve esthetics, patient satisfaction, and peri-implant health is common. Several soft tissue grafting materials can be used to increase soft tissue thickness at the second-stage surgery, including human dermal matrices and xenogeneic collagen scaffolds. This study assessed and compared the volumetric outcomes, from second-stage surgery to crown delivery, around implants that received STA with a xenogeneic cross-linked collagen scaffold (XCCS) vs nonaugmented implant sites. Thirty-one patients (31 implant sites) completed the study. Intraoral digital scans were taken at the second stage and prior to crown delivery, and the STL files were imported in an image-analysis software to assess volumetric changes. XCCS-augmented implants showed significantly greater volumetric changes compared to control sites, which showed volume loss. The mean thickness of the XCCS-augmented area was 0.73 mm. There was no difference in patient-reported esthetic evaluations between groups. STA with XCCS provided significantly greater volumetric outcomes compared to nonaugmented sites. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term behavior of the augmented peri-implant mucosa and the effects of STA on peri-implant health.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5987, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552197Pages 425-433, Language: English
This evaluation correlates maxillary sinus 3D morphology with bone regeneration. In 39 patients with crestal bone ≤ 2 mm, mineralized human bone allografts were used to augment the sinus floor through the crestal window sinus elevation approach. CBCT was used to measure the buccopalatal diameter (BPD), mesiodistal diameter (MDD), and hemi-ellipsoidal volume (Vh) in all sinuses. A bone core biopsy sample was taken at implant placement (4 to 5 months after sinus augmentation). Microradiographs of methacrylate-embedded sections were used to evaluate the amounts of bone, residual graft, and soft tissue. All 51 implants placed in the 39 patients successfully osseointegrated. A linear regression analysis showed that as BPD, MMD, and Vh increased, the amount of bone gain decreased and the amount of soft tissue increased (P < .05). The amount of residual graft was little affected by sinus morphology. Microradiographic data were grouped into four different sinus types (from small to great) using BPD and Vh medians. The best amount of bone formation was achieved in the narrow and short sinus type, while no great differences were found in the remaining three sinus types. Understanding of 3D sinus cavity morphology, especially the buccopalatal diameter and mesiodistal dimensions, is fundamental for achieving the best possible sinus augmentation outcomes.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5671, PubMed ID (PMID): 36520135Pages 435-441, Language: English
The aim of this prospective case series was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic cortical bone lamina utilized as a “shell” on the buccal aspect of narrow alveolar ridges for horizontal bone augmentation. Fifteen patients requiring multiple implant restorations at sites with moderate to severe horizontal bone deficiency were consecutively enrolled. Horizontal bone augmentation was performed using a xenogeneic cortical bone lamina (XCBL), which was fixed on the buccal aspect of the ridge using titanium screws, and a mixture of particulate autogenous bone graft and porcine hydroxyapatite. CBCT scans were taken at baseline and 6 months after bone augmentation. The healing was uneventful, with no intra- or postoperative complications. Twenty-seven implants were placed in the augmented sites. The calculated average horizontal bone gain from CBCT scans was 4.79 ± 1.64 mm, 5.59 ± 1.51 mm, and 5.79 ± 2.53 mm at 1-, 3-, and 5-mm reference points apical to the buccal bone crest, respectively. The present case series demonstrated that the shell technique with the XCBL and particulate bone graft can be an effective approach for horizontal bone augmentation prior to implant placement.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5859, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552191Pages 443-449, Language: English
Partial extraction therapy (PET) is a set of surgical techniques that preserve a portion of the patient’s own root structure to maintain blood supply derived from the periodontal ligament complex in order to maintain the periodontium and peri-implant tissues during restorative and implant therapy. PET includes the socket shield technique (SST), proximal shield technique (PrST), pontic shield technique (PtST), and root submergence technique (RST). In a traditional hybrid technique, total extraction and full-arch dental implant therapy often require significant bone reduction and palatal/lingual implant placement. In addition, postextraction preservation of the ridge architecture is a major challenge. This case series demonstrates the use of a combination of PET techniques with digital implant planning and guided implant surgery to achieve highly esthetic outcomes in full-arch implant therapy.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6161, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552192Pages 451-460, Language: English
This retrospective study investigates the efficacy of the socket shield (SS) in preserving inter-implant papilla and bone in anterior adjacent implant sites. Clinical and radiographic records of 23 patients were evaluated. A total of 31 implants were placed immediately into extraction sockets with SS, resulting in 26 inter-implant sites, and 7 implants were placed without SS. After a mean follow-up of 41.5 months (range: 12 to 124 months), 30/31 (96.8%) implants with SS and 7/7 (100%) implants without SS were clinically successful. The mean changes in inter-implant papilla and bone heights were –0.40 mm and –0.46 mm, respectively. The effects of implant placement timing and the socket shield number, shape, and crestal level on inter-implant tissue height changes were found to be insignificant (P > .05). Supracrestal shield level (31.6% vs 16.6% in equicrestal), U-shape shield (41.2% vs 7.1% in C-shape), and shield-to-implant contact (40.0% vs 12.5% in no contact) were associated with increased occurrence of exposures. The application of SS in adjacent anterior implant situations is a viable treatment option for maintaining inter-implant papilla.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5620, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552189Pages 463-469c, Language: English
The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate whether placement of a soft tissue graft substitute (STGS) could decrease peri-implant tissue shrinkage at immediate postextractive implants. Twenty patients with one missing tooth between two adjacent healthy teeth in esthetic areas and at least 4 mm of bone apical to the tooth apex were randomly allocated (after tooth extraction) to receive (n = 10; test group) or not receive (n = 10; control group) a subepithelial buccal STGS. Implants were inserted with a torque of at least 30 Ncm, and sites were grafted with a cancellous particulate allograft. All patients were restored with nonoccluding immediate provisional screw-retained crowns, replaced after 6 months by definitive metal-ceramic crowns. One year after loading, no dropouts, crown or implant failure, or complications occurred. No statistically significant difference or trends in volume shrinkage, esthetics, peri-implant marginal bone loss, and keratinized mucosa heights between the two groups were observed. Acknowledging that the sample size was small, no clinical benefit could be observed for the use of a STGS in immediate postextractive implants.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5754, PubMed ID (PMID): 36520131Pages 471-477b, Language: English
While vertical guided bone regeneration (vGBR) is a popular technique for treating alveolar bone deficiency, there are no long-term studies analyzing the longevity of the results and the success of this approach. This retrospective study analyzes the clinical and radiographic outcomes of oxidized implants placed after vGBR with a follow-up period of 4 to 15 years. The study considers 41 vGBR patients who received one or more rough-surface implants between 2001 and 2013 (115 implants total). Clinical and radiographic outcomes were recorded during follow-up visits. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyze the correlation between peri-implantitis and demographic, surgical, and clinical variables, as well as the length of the follow-up period. The cumulative survival rate of the implants over the mean follow-up period of 9.6 ± 3.4 years was 95.7%, with peri-implantitis observed in 26.1% of the implant sites. The variables that correlated with the occurrence of peri-implantitis were smoking (OR: 8.5, 95% CI: 1.6–44.5, P < .01), posterior mandible implant position (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9, P < .01), and the length of the follow-up period (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.2, P < .01). Along with previous long-term follow-up studies, these results suggest that oxidized-surface implants carry higher risk for peri-implantitis than machined-surface implants.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5691, PubMed ID (PMID): 36520134Pages 479-488, Language: English
The aim of this study was to assess changes in the horizontal dimension of the alveolar ridge using the autogenous bone block (ABB) or periosteal pocket flap (PPF) techniques prior to implant placement. This randomized trial study was conducted on 25 patients in need of horizontal bone augmentation who were randomly divided into two groups as follows: 13 underwent ridge augmentation with ABB in combination with allograft and collagen membrane, and 12 underwent ridge augmentation with the PPF technique. Radiographic examination via CBCT was conducted on all patients before and 26 weeks after the operation. Dimensional changes in the ridge width following surgery were measured within each group and also between the two groups in three regions: 0, 3, and 5 mm from the top of the alveolar crest. Eleven patients in the ABB group and all 12 patients in the PPF group successfully completed the study. Statistical analysis showed that the increase in alveolar ridge width in each group was significant, but the difference between the groups was not significant at any of the measured spots (0 mm from the crest, P = .25; 3 mm, P = .38; 5 mm, P = .73). However, more postoperative complications were observed with the ABB technique. According to the results of this study, there was no statistically significant difference between PPF and ABB techniques in terms of horizontal bone gain.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5886, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552190Pages 491-497, Language: English
Various techniques have been proposed to regenerate deficient ridges after tooth removal, including guided bone regeneration, block grafting, distraction osteogenesis, and ridge splitting. However, these procedures are technique-sensitive and often present complications which prevent reconstruction of the deficient ridge and implant placement. In an atrophic anterior or posterior maxilla, these techniques often fail to produce satisfactory long-term outcomes due to the poor bone quality, pneumatization of the maxillary sinus, and the highly cosmetic patient demands. The customized alveolar ridge-splitting (CARS) technique was introduced to improve outcomes and minimize the risk of complications. The synergistic combination of this technique with another augmentation procedure—including lateral window sinus augmentation and guided bone regeneration—allows implant placement into ridges with deficient bone volume both vertically and horizontally. This study presents two case reports that were successfully treated with the CARS technique and additional augmentation techniques to treat severely atrophic ridges in the anterior and posterior maxilla.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5963, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552195Pages 499-504, Language: English
Gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs), also called combined defects, are common problems, and patients often seek treatment due to esthetic concerns or dentin hypersensitivity. This case series evaluates the effectiveness of the non–coronally advanced flap (CAF) technique combined with restorative treatment for Miller Class III gingival recessions with NCCLs. A total of 16 combined defects were included. The combined defect height (CDH), recession depth (RD), pocket depth (PD), keratinized tissue width (KTW), and presence of dentin hypersensitivity were recorded at baseline and 6 months postsurgery. The mean root coverage (mRC) was 83%, and 50% of defects presented complete root coverage (CRC). In the group with an initial KTW ≥ 2 mm, mRC and CRC were significantly higher. Further randomized controlled studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify the prognostic factor of combined non-CAF techniques and restorative treatment for gingival recessions with NCCLs.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.5852, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552193Pages 507-515, Language: English
Reducing patient morbidity is one of the challenging goals of proper surgical techniques. The rehabilitation success begins with a good surgical plan. Scientifically proven biomaterials are excellent options to overcome the lack of autologous bone for maxillary reconstructions. This case report presents a clinical case of maxillary reconstruction combining guided bone regeneration with xenograft blocks and maxillary sinus elevation. This technique achieved maxillary rehabilitation with a fixed implant-supported prosthesis of a challenging case. The clinical case has an 18-month follow-up with no major complications and excellent clinical and radiographic results.
DOI: 10.11607/prd.6005, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552196Pages 517-523, Language: English
Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition that involves the loss of attachment and support around dental implants. In this case report, a middle-aged woman presented with two implants in the mandibular right quadrant that were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. The patient also had tenderness around the implants and reported sensitivity when performing oral hygiene procedures. Surgical treatment comprised a free gingival graft to augment the keratinized tissue width around the implants, followed by a second procedure of implantoplasty and surface decontamination. The outcome showed radiographic resolution of the peri-implant defect around the premolar implant with a marked increase of keratinized tissue (> 4 mm) around both implants after 1 year of follow up. On a patient level, significantly reduced sensitivity around the implants and better home care were reported. This case report showed that the increase of keratinized tissue may benefit the clinical and patient outcomes of peri-implantitis treatment in terms of decreased probing depths, absence of inflammation, and improved radiographic crestal stability. The combined correction of both hard and soft tissue defects around peri-implantitis lesions may facilitate treatment success and help maintain peri-implant stability.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5997, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552199Pages e157-e163, Language: English
This study aims to compare the incidence of biologic and mechanical complication rates and the survival rates after at least 5 years of implants and implant-supported fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) placed during second-stage surgery using four and six implants. A total of 77 patients (33 men, 44 women) with a mean age of 60.6 ± 8.8 years (range: 39 to 80 years) were included, and the total of 92 IFCDPs were classified into two groups: 51 received four implants, and 41 received six implants. No implant failed in the four-implant group (0/204), and one implant failed in the six-implant group (1/246), with no statistically significant differences (P > .05). One prosthetic failure occurred in the four-implant group (1/51), and one failure occurred in the six-implant group (1/41). Both groups experienced some tech-nical and biologic complications, with no statistically significant differences between the groups (P > .05). For both groups, veneer or resin fracture was the most frequent mechanical complication, and mucositis was the most frequent biologic complication. The use of four or six implants may represent a predictable treatment option in the rehabilitation of completely edentulous patients with IFCDPs in the medium-term.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5971, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552194Pages e165-e172, Language: English
Adequate implant primary stability is a key factor to obtain osseointegration and can be measured at insertion by insertion torque (IT) and at different timepoints with resonance frequency analysis (RFA), expressed as an implant stability quotient (ISQ). This retrospective study investigated the correlation between ISQ and IT at implant insertion. All patients who were eligible for this single-cohort retrospective clinical trial were treated with an immediate implant. IT parameters were recorded at implant insertion, and ISQ values were recorded at insertion and at 2-, 4-, and 12-month follow-ups. The study comprised 23 patients who received 32 implants. The mean IT value was 46.87 ± 9.66 Ncm (range: 25 to 65 Ncm), and the mean ISQ value at implant insertion was 71.45 ± 4.24 (range: 63 to 78); these values showed a statistically significant correlation (P < .0001). According to the present data and considering the implant design used in this trial, there is a statistically significant and positive correlation between IT and ISQ values. Thus, ISQ can be used as a reliable method to measure implant stability over time.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5625, PubMed ID (PMID): 36520127Pages e173-e180, Language: English
Currently, several techniques are used in the posterior mandible to increase alveolar bone height and width. However, each has potential complications and limitations. The purpose of the current study was to present the surgical technique and restorative considerations for implant placement lateral to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in cases of severely atrophic edentulous posterior mandibles. In total, 26 implants were successfully placed lateral to the IAN in 16 patients and restored with splinted screw-retained prostheses. The postloading follow-up time ranged between 3 months and 6 years. Two patients reported complications: One patient had a temporary paresthesia that resolved 3 months after implant placement, and the second patient had minor paresthesia that was reduced after implant removal but remained in a small area on the left corner of her lip.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5953, PubMed ID (PMID): 37552198Pages e181-e188, Language: English
This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the pinhole surgical technique (PST) combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for the management of multiple recession defects compared to PST alone. Ten patients with 51 Miller Class I/ II or III gingival recessions were selected. Control sites were treated with PST alone, whereas test sites were treated with PST with PRF. Gingival recession depth (GRD), gingival recession width (GRW), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), keratinized tissue width (KTW), total soft tissue gain (TSTG), Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment. Both groups showed statistically significant root coverage. The mean recession coverage was 60.25% in the test group and 49.6% in the control group. The recession reduction from baseline was 2.50 mm for the test group and 1.88 mm for the control group. At the end of 6 months, all sites achieved adequate root coverage. PRF is a feasible alternative to connective tissue grafts as an adjunct to PST for the treatment of multiple recession defects.
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.5877, PubMed ID (PMID): 36520120Pages 189-197, Language: English
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is one of the most common congenital connective tissue disorders affecting the synthesis and production of collagen cells. Medical implications on joints, muscles, soft tissue, and blood circulation have been documented in the literature. Many oral manifestations are displayed in EDS patients, including gingival recession, lack of attached gingiva, early severe periodontitis, dental anomalies, and dental caries. However, the literature is limited, is often contradictory, and provides no consensus for guidelines regarding prosthodontic, periodontal, and implant treatment of patients with EDS. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to analyze the pertinent literature regarding prosthodontics, periodontology, and implant dentistry in EDS patients.