Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of melatonin for migraine prophylaxis in adults.
Keywords: frequency of migraine attacks, melatonin, meta-analysis, migraine, migraine attack duration, migraine severity, prophylaxis, responder rate
Methods: After a comprehensive literature search in the MEDLINE, Cochrane Database, and International Clinical Trial Registry Platform databases, reviewers extracted data from three relevant articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed in the selection, analysis, and reporting of the findings. Quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. A random-effects model was used to estimate the effect size, and meta-regression was performed for variables with a likely influence on effect size. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the comparison used in the included studies.
Results: Melatonin therapy in migraine was associated with a significantly higher responder rate when compared to both placebo and standard therapy (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.14; P = .03). The results of the meta-analyses indicated that melatonin can achieve a significant reduction in frequency of migraine attacks (MD = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.02 to 1.98; P = .04), migraine attack duration (MD = 5.02; 95% CI: 0. 91 to 9.13; P = .02), use of analgesics (MD = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.38 to 2.48; P = .008), and migraine severity (MD = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.63; P < .0001) over placebo, but had no significant effects in comparison to amitriptyline or valproate. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of common adverse drug reactions, such as drowsiness and fatigue, between the melatonin group and the comparison groups.
Conclusions: Melatonin showed a beneficial prophylactic role in migraine, with a better responder rate in comparison to placebo in reducing migraine severity, mean attack duration, mean attack frequency, and analgesic use, but did not show significant effects in comparison to amitriptyline or valproate.