Buccal bone walls present significant resorption after tooth extraction, possibly related to the smaller bone thickness, length, and the sagittal position of the root, as well as the bone morphology. The goal of the present study was to measure the thickness of the cortical bone of the vestibular and palatal walls in the anterior maxilla by means of CBCT images. Measurements were taken from CBCT scans of 300 maxillary anterior teeth from 50 patients (25 women, 25 men) aged 18 to 30 years. The parameters evaluated included the thickness of the buccal and palatal cortical bone in the cervical, apical, and middle thirds of the root, as well as six specific angular measurements from each tooth. The lateral incisors showed a significant difference in thickness between each of the buccal and palatal thirds, and measurements were also significantly smaller than the central and canine incisors. Bone anatomy is tooth-and location-specific, and thus the sagittal root position within the alveolus influences the regional bone morphology and may explain the gingival zenith position in the anterior maxilla. These specific buccal and palatal anatomic parameters should be carefully taken into consideration for surgical planning and intervention in the esthetic area.