Purpose: The present study assessed the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and Salvadora persica-based mouthwashes (SPM) in reducing oral Candida carriage (OCC) and periodontal inflammation in cigarette smokers and non-smokers after non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT).
Keywords: chlorhexidine, mouthwash, non-surgical periodontal treatment, periodontal inflammation, Salvadora persica, smoking
Materials and Methods: Self-reported cigarette smokers and non-smokers with periodontal inflammation as well as non-smokers with a healthy periodontal status were included. NSPT was performed in all participants. Based on the type of mouthwash, participants were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group 1: CHX; group 2: SPM; and group 3: distilled water (ddH2O) with mint flavour (control group). Clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and marginal bone loss (MBL) were measured. Clinical periodontal parameters were re-assessed at a 6-week follow-up. Oral yeast samples were collected and identified using a concentrated oral-rinse culture technique and PCR, respectively. Clinical and laboratory-based investigations were done at baseline and after six weeks. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: At baseline, PI, MBL, PD and CAL were comparable in all participants. None of the patients had periodontitis at baseline. Post-operatively, CHX and SPM were more effective in reducing PI (p < 0.01), GI (p < 0.01) and PD (p < 0.01) in non-smokers than in the control group. The OCC was statistically significantly higher among smokers compared with non-smokers at baseline. At the 6-month follow-up, CHX was more effective than SPM in reducing OCC in non-smokers (p < 0.01). At the 6-week follow-up, there was no difference in OCC among cigarette smokers regardless of the type of mouthwash prescribed postoperatively.
Conclusion: In cigarette smokers and non-smokers, CHX and SPM are effective in reducing periodontal soft-tissue inflammation after NSPT. Post-operative use of CHX is more effective than SPM in reducing OCC.