Purpose: This review aimed to highlight the aetiology and risk factors of food impaction along with the treatment in each case.
Keywords: food impaction, periodontitis, proximal space, proximal contact, restoration
Materials and Methods: A search was conducted in PubMed from 1947 to March 28, 2023. The search terms utilised included (food impaction) OR (interdental impaction). No filter was applied. Articles related to the classification, aetiology, treatment, and associated factors of food impaction in dentistry and published in English or with an abstract in English were selected.
Results: A total of 72 articles were included in the review, which revealed the variety and complexity of aetiological factors and treatment of food impaction in dentistry, as well as the heterogeneity of previous studies. Based on the aetiology, different treatment plans and management should be considered.
Conclusion: This review indicated the need to identify the pathology of food impaction before treatment. Considering the causal factors of food impaction – including proximal contact loss, occlusal disharmony, morphological deformity, positional abnormality, and interdental papillae loss – different management approaches such as restoration, occlusal adjustment, orthodontic, nonsurgical or surgical treatment could be applied. Further clinical and experimental research is warranted to address the prevention and treatment of food impaction in dentistry.