Purpose: This study aimed to compare the cell toxicity and biological characteristics of Ketac GIC (glass-ionomer cement), Nexus RMGIC (resin-modified glass-ionomer cement), and RelyX RC (resin cement) in human periodontal stem cells (PDSCs).
Keywords: cytotoxicity, ERK, human periodontal stem cells, resin monomer, ROS
Materials and Methods: To compare the effects of Ketac GIC, Nexus RMGIC, and RelyX RC on PDSCs, the cements were diluted from 1:2 to 1:8. PDSCs were then treated with the serially diluted cements with or without N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and cell survival was measured using water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA), and western blot analysis was performed to observe phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by Nexus RMGIC or RelyX RC.
Results: Cell death and proliferation were dose-dependently reduced following Nexus RMGIC or RelyX RC treatment. In addition, Nexus RMGIC or RelyX RC showed an increase intracellular ROS generation compared to Ketac GIC. Pretreatment with NAC confirmed the suppression of cell toxicity and ROS generation induced by Nexus RMGIC or RelyX RC. Nexus RMGIC or RelyX RC activates ERK phosphorylation, not p38 phosphorylation, in PDSCs.
Conclusion: This study showed that the treatment with Nexus RMGIC or RelyX generates intracellular ROS and cell death through the ERK signaling pathway in PDSCs. In contrast, these effects were not observed with Ketac GIC, indicating that resin-based materials may have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on PDSCs.