This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of xenogeneic collagen membrane (XCM) derived from porcine peritoneum in combination with a coronally advanced flap (CAF) in the management of gingival recession defects and to compare the outcomes to those of connective tissue grafts (CTGs). A total of 12 systemically healthy individuals presenting with 30 isolated/multiple Cairo RT 1/2 gingival recession defects in maxillary canines and premolars were randomly treated either with CAF + XCM or CAF + CTG. Recession height (RH), gingival biotype (GB), gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), and width of attached gingiva (WAG) were recorded at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Patient perceptions of pain and esthetics and the modified root coverage esthetic score (MRES) were also documented. From baseline to 12 months, both groups showed a significant reduction in mean RH (CAF + CTG: 2.73 ± 0.79 mm to 0.33 ± 0.61 mm; CAF + XCM: 2.73 ± 0.88 mm to 1.20 ± 0.77 mm). At 12 months, CAF + CTG sites had a mean root coverage percentage (MRC%) of 85.60% ± 28.74%, whereas CAF + XCM sites had an MRC% of 55.13% ± 31.22%. CAF + CTG–treated sites had significantly better outcomes, with a greater number of sites achieving complete root coverage (n = 11) and higher MRES scores than the porcine peritoneal membrane group (P < .05).