Aims: To assess changes in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and multiple biobehavioral variables relevant to TMDs in response to an external stressor. Methods: Self-reported data using online DC/TMD questionnaires were collected from volunteer dentistry graduate students. Data collection was performed on two occasions: during a non-exam period of the semester and during the subsequent exam period. Changes in the proportion of students with pain, differences in pain grade, and severity of biobehavioral status were measured and compared over the two periods. The association between severity of non-exam–period biobehavioral status and pain presence was also tested to assess whether biobehavioral variables can predict pain occurrence or persistence. Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. P < .05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 213 enrolled students, 102 remained after data reduction. In the non-exam period, the proportion of individuals with pain was 24.5%; in the exam period, the proportion was 54.9%, and more students had a higher pain grade. The severity of all biobehavioral variables was higher in the exam period, but there was no association between changes in the presence of pain and changes in biobehavioral variables. Higher anxiety and parafunction levels were found in those who reported pain on both occasions. Conclusion: Exam periods initiate readily measurable changes in the psychologic status of many students, as well as alterations in their temporomandibular pain. Higher levels of anxiety and oral behaviors during non-exam periods seem to be predictors for persisting pain.