Aims: To document National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) practitioner treatment recommendations for patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to identify practitioner/practice- and patient-related factors contributing to treatment recommendations made at the initial clinical visit. Methods: This prospective single-sample cohort study formed groups based on treatment recommendations made by 185 dental practitioners who treated 1,901 patients with painful TMDs. At the baseline visit, which this article describes, practitioners provided patients with their diagnoses and a treatment plan and then completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Results: Self-care, an intraoral appliance, medication, and practitioner-recommended jaw exercises were the most frequently recommended treatments. Practitioners recommended multiple treatments to most patients. TMD signs, symptoms, and diagnoses were primary considerations in treatment planning, but the practitioner’s expectations for improvement were only significant for intraoral appliances and self-care. Female practitioners and those with expertise in TMDs more frequently recommended patient-directed and multidisciplinary treatments compared to their counterparts. Conclusions: Practitioners used a wide range of treatments for patients with few consistent patterns. The propensity to use TMD signs, symptoms, and diagnoses when making treatment recommendations suggests a tendency to conceptualize patients using the biomedical model. Infrequent referral to nondental providers suggests a lack of availability of these providers, a misunderstanding of the complexity of TMDs, and/or discomfort with assessment of psychosocial factors. Implications include the need for comprehensive training in the assessment and management of TMD patients during dental school and participation in TMD continuing education courses following evidence-based guidelines.