The aim of this morphometric study was to precisely determine the 3D characteristics of the root complex of the posterior dentition. Extracted and well-preserved permanent posterior teeth were included in this analysis and grouped based on tooth type and arch location. All teeth were digitally scanned. Morphologic and dimensional features of the root complex were assessed, including length and surface area of the root trunk and individual roots, width of root concavities (RC), and furcation entrance, when present. A total of 240 posterior teeth comprised the study sample. The root complex of multirooted maxillary first premolars presented with a long root trunk (10.49 mm), representing 65.52% of the surface area, and two short roots comprising the remaining 34.8% of the surface area. Root trunks of mandibular molars were an average of 0.8 mm shorter than their maxillary counterparts. Class III furcation involvement is expected in all maxillary and mandibular molars, as well as multirooted maxillary first premolars, after 4.80 mm and 10.49 mm of clinical attachment loss, respectively. RCs were a common finding among the evaluated dentitions. The root complex morphology varies among the maxillary and mandibular posterior dentition. RCs are highly prevalent in both maxillary and mandibular dentition. The findings derived from this study can be utilized in daily clinical practice for the adequate management of posterior dentition and serve as a reference for future investigations in dental anatomy and digital technology. Also, these findings can guide the industry into creating and redefining tools that adequately adapt to the anatomical characteristics and variations of the specific tooth type.