Keywords: bone graft, case report/series, dentin graft, platelet-rich plasma, socket shield, soft tissue ingrowth
Purpose: There is little knowledge about healing patterns for the socket with an intentionally retained root fragment: a socket shield. The clinical observation is soft tissue ingrowth next to the socket shield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of autologous grafting matrices in preventing soft tissue ingrowth.
Materials and methods: Patient data from a private clinic were searched for sockets with a socket shield left to heal with blood clot or grafted with autologous materials: autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), scraped particulate bone, cortical tuberosity bone plate, or particulate dentin and covered with PRF membranes. The included sites were exposed by the flap 4 months after the first surgery, and soft tissue ingrowth depth and width next to the root fragment were measured by a scaled probe and documented.
Results: Evaluation of 34 sites showed the greatest depth of soft tissue ingrowth in the nongrafted sockets (6.0 ± 0.0 mm). Grafting with PRF plugs (depth of 2.3 ± 0.2 mm) or particulate bone (depth of 2.7 ± 0.6 mm) decreased soft tissue ingrowth. Grafting with particulate dentin or cortical tuberosity bone plate resulted in a soft tissue ingrowth depth of only 1 mm, yielding the best clinical outcome. Radiography confirmed those findings.
Conclusion: Autologous dentin particulate or tuberosity cortical bone plate is most effective for preventing soft tissue ingrowth.