Purpose: To compare the effect of active pre-conditioning with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) vs 37% phosphoric acid (PA) on the resin-enamel microshear bond strength (μSBS), enamel-etching pattern, and in situ degree of conversion (in situ DC) of four universal adhesives on sound and fluorotic enamel.
Keywords: universal adhesives, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, fluorosis, dental bonding
Material and Methods: In this study, 448 extracted human molars (224 without fluorosis and 224 with fluorosis) were sectioned into four parts and divided into 16 experimental groups based on the enamel surface (sound or fluorotic enamel), adhesive (Clearfil Universal Bond [CUB], Futurabond U [FBU], iBond Universal [IBU], or Scotchbond Universal [SBU]), and enamel conditioning agent (PA or EDTA). The specimens were stored for 24 h and tested under shear stress at 1.0 mm/min to determine the μSBS. The adhesive-enamel interfaces were evaluated for in situ DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. The µSBS and in situ DC data were analyzed separately using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (α = 0.05).
Results: Sound enamel showed higher μSBS and in situ DC compared to fluorotic enamel (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed for μSBS, in situ DC (p > 0.05), or etching patterns when PA and EDTA etching were compared in sound and fluorotic enamel. Moreover, CUB and SBU showed higher mean μSBS than did FBU and IBU in both sound and fluorotic enamel (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Compared to PA, active pre-conditioning with EDTA showed similar μSBS and enamel etching patterns for all the adhesives in fluorotic enamel, without compromising the in situ DC.