Keywords: bone-implant interface, cancellous bone, cortical bone, dental implant, finite element analysis, mechanical strain
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of changing five macrostructural design parameters of dental implants on the peak strains experienced by the interfacial bone.
Materials and methods: Five geometric variables, including three body-related (implant length, diameter, and taper) and two thread-related (thread depth and thread angle) parameters, were defined. The alveolar bone was modeled as a block with anisotropic and linearly elastic properties with 20-mm height and 12-mm buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Oblique occlusal loads (100-N vertical and 20-N horizontal) were applied to the abutment surface. A total of 162 models with different designs were defined by implementation of a full-factorial design. The peak values of the compressive and tensile principal strains in the cortical and cancellous bones were calculated by finite element analysis (FEA).
Results: Implant diameter and length had maximum and minimum effects on the peak compressive and tensile strains at the cortical interface, respectively. Implant diameter and thread depth had maximum and minimum effects on the maximum compressive strain at the cancellous interface, while thread angle and length had maximum and minimum significant effects on the maximum tensile strain at the cancellous interface.
Conclusion: The interaction of thread parameters and taper has the greatest effect on the peak compressive and tensile strains at the cancellous interface and also on the peak tensile strain at the cortical interface, while body-related parameters are more effective on the peak compressive strain at the cortical interface.