Purpose: To primarily evaluate the dimensional changes of bone and soft tissue following ridge augmentation in compromised molar regions. The secondary objective was to evaluate the histologic composition of augmented sites.
Keywords: bone regeneration, ridge preservation, tooth extraction
Materials and methods: The study included 27 patients who underwent augmentation of extraction sites with grafts covered by a collagen membrane. CBCT was taken immediately after augmentation (T2) and after 8 months of healing, before implant placement (T3). The width and height of the extraction sites were recorded at extraction (T1) and reentry surgery (T4). A histomorphometric analysis was performed. Data were evaluated in terms of bone crest level, implant survival rates, and change in mucogingival junction.
Results: According to clinical measurement, horizontal and vertical bone gain was 10.15 ± 1.00 mm and 8.80 ± 1.86 mm, respectively. Radiographic measurement showed that the horizontal width changes were 1.46 ± 0.52 mm, 0.98 ± 1.29 mm, and 1.29 ± 0.82 mm, respectively, at 1, 3, and 5 mm apical to the crestal level. Vertical bone change was 2.34 ± 0.90 mm in the center of the socket. Histomorphometric analysis showed that percentages of mineralized bone, nonmineralized tissue, and bone substitute were 32.31% ± 13.25%, 25.36% ± 12.24%, and 42.34% ± 9.54%, respectively. The mucogingival junction shift was 0.6 ± 1.1 mm. Implant survival rates and crestal bone resorption were 100% and 0.78 ± 0.58 mm, respectively, after 1 year of loading.
Conclusion: Ridge augmentation can be performed successfully to manage extraction sockets. Membrane coverage combined with primary wound closure could be conducive to new bone regeneration and peri-implant tissue health.