This study aimed to calculate the 3-year dimensional change in crestal bone width when dental implants placed in postextraction sockets underwent two alternative techniques for alveolar preservation. Fresh sockets that had undergone immediate implant placement were categorized into one of two groups depending on the procedure type. For the xenogeneic biomaterial grafted (BG) group, the gaps between the metallic implant surfaces and the bony walls were filled with corticocancellous porcine bone; in the anatomical cap group, in which patients were treated with guided tissue healing (GTH), cross-linkable acrylic resin caps were immediately screwed on the implants. Absolute measurements of the alveolar width were performed on 3D images acquired before tooth extraction (thereby ensuring correct surgical treatment) and 3 years after surgery. Nonparametric statistics were performed, with the level of significance set at 1%. The results of 46 implants (placed in 36 patients) were analyzed, and 100% survival rates were reported for both groups at 3 years postsurgery. Minor swelling of treated areas was observed the first few days of healing, but neither mucositides, dehiscence events, nor suppurations occurred. At 3 years postsurgery, loss in alveolar ridge width was higher for the BG group (-1.1 ± 0.6 mm) than for the GTH group (0.0 ± 0.3 mm); moreover, these changes were significantly different (P < .0001). This clinical and radiographic data analysis suggests that the implant sites that received a xenogeneic filling material were less effective in maintaining the preoperative alveolar bone width than sites that underwent GTH with immediate implants and anatomical tooth-shaped caps.