Purpose: To analyse whether the stage of apical development affects the effectiveness of regenerative endodontic treatment by comparing the outcomes for necrotic mature and immature permanent teeth treated with regenerative endodontic procedures.
Keywords: dental pulp necrosis, meta-analysis, regenerative endodontics
Materials and Methods: Multiple databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE and OpenGrey databases) were searched through February 17th, 2022. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials that included treatment of necrotic immature or mature permanent teeth using any regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) that aimed to achieve pulp revascularisation or regeneration. The Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool was used to assess risk of bias. The included indicators were asymptomatic sign, success, pulp sensitivity, and discolouration. The extracted data were expressed by percentage for statistical analysis. The random effect model was used to explain the results. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 was used to perform the statistical analyses.
Results: Twenty-seven RCTs were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The success rates of necrotic immature and mature permanent teeth were 95.6% (95% CI, 92.4%-97.5%; I2=34.9%) and 95.5% (95%CI, 87.9%-98.4%; I2=0%), respectively. The asymptomatic rates of necrotic immature and mature permanent teeth were 96.2% (95%CI, 93.5%-97.9%; I2=30.1%) and 97.0% (95%CI, 92.6%-98.8%; I2=0%), respectively. The treatment of immature and mature necrotic permanent teeth with REPs yields high success rates and low symptomatic rates. The incidence of positive sensitivity response for electric pulp testing in necrotic immature permanent teeth (25.2% [95% CI, 18.2%-33.8%; I2=0%]) was lower than that in necrotic mature permanent teeth (45.4% [95% CI, 27.2%–64.8%; I2=75.2%]), and this difference was statistically significant. The restoration of pulp sensitivity seems to be more evident in necrotic mature permanent teeth than in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The crown discolouration rate of immature permanent teeth was 62.5% (95% CI, 49.7%-73.8%; I2=76.1%). Necrotic immature permanent teeth have a considerable crown discolouration rate.
Conclusion: REPs for both immature and mature necrotic permanent teeth yield high success rates and promote root development. The vitality responses seem to be more evident in necrotic mature permanent teeth than in necrotic immature permanent teeth.