Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2022
Open Access Online OnlyNarrative ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3630405, PubMed ID (PMID): 36448277Pages 485-499, Language: English
Summary: Most available antiseptic solutions have strong antibacterial effects, but many also possess major cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and/or epithelial cells. A novel VEGA Oral Care Recovery Kit (StellaLife) consisting of 16 active ingredients that are monographed in the Homeopathic Pharmacopeia of the United States (HPUS) has gained tremendous momentum as a replacement for more cytotoxic oral rinses such as chlorhexidine. While accumulating evidence has thus far supported its use, little of the gathered data have fully described the properties of the oral formulation. Therefore, the aim of the present review article was 3-fold. First, a biological characterization regarding the active ingredients found in StellaLife Recovery Kit including their biological properties was assessed in 4 predominant categories; 1) antimicrobial resistance, 2) accelerated wound healing, 3) pain management control, and 4) anti-cancer properties. The second aim of this review article was to assess both fundamental and clinical research to date comparing VEGA oral rinse (StellaLife) to the more commonly utilized CHX for differences regarding their effect on decreasing bacterial loads as well as cell viability, survival, proliferation, and expression of both regenerative cytokines and inflammatory markers. Lastly, clinical case examples are presented describing the use of StellaLife remedies in a variety of clinical situations. These include but are not limited to wisdom-tooth extraction, extraction site management, dental implants and ridge augmentation, soft-tissue grafting procedures, frenectomies, and also temporary relief of dry sockets, dry mouth, aphthous ulcers, mucositis, lichen planus, among others. In summary, findings from the present review article provide evidence from basic laboratory experiments that validate clinical studies supporting the use of the StellaLife oral rinse regarding its superior biocompatibility and wound healing properties when compared to common antiseptic solutions such as CHX.
Keywords: antiseptic solution, cell viability, chlorhexidine, oral rinses, periodontal disease, StellaLife, wound healing
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2022
Open Access Online OnlySystematic ReviewDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b3125655, PubMed ID (PMID): 35695693Pages 233-242, Language: English
Purpose: The aim of the present systematic review with meta-analysis was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of EMD (enamel matrix derivative) using a minimally invasive surgical technique (MIST) or flapless approach for the treatment of severe periodontal probing depths.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature including searches in PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Grey Literature databases as well as manual searches was performed on September 1st, 2021. Studies utilising EMD in a non-surgical or minimally invasive approach were included. The eligibility criteria comprised randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing minimally-invasive/flapless approaches with/without EMD for the treatment of probing depths >5 mm.
Results: From 1525 initial articles, 7 RCTs were included and 12 case series discussed. Three studies investigated a MIST approach, whereas 3 studies utilised a flapless approach. One study compared EMD with either a MIST or a flapless approach. The RCTs included ranged from 19–49 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up. While 5 of the studies included smokers, patients smoking >20 cigarettes/day were excluded from the study. The meta-analysis revealed that EMD with MIST improved recession coverage (REC) and bone fill (BF) when compared to MIST without EMD. However, no difference in CAL or PD was observed between MIST + EMD vs MIST without EMD. No statistically significant advantage was found for employing the EMD via the flapless approach.
Conclusions: Implementing EMD in MIST procedures displayed statistically significant improvement in REC and BF when compared to MIST alone. These findings suggest that MIST in combination with EMD led to improved clinical outcomes while EMD employed in nonsurgical flapless therapy yielded no clinical benefits when compared to nonsurgical therapy alone without EMD. More research is needed to substantiate these findings.
Keywords: EMD, enamel matrix derivative, enamel matrix proteins, intrabony defect, minimally invasive surgery
Quintessence International, 7/2021
DOI: 10.3290/j.qi.b1098307, PubMed ID (PMID): 33749221Pages 576-582, Language: English
Objectives: To describe the step-by-step procedure of a novel surgical technique consisting of a combination of the laterally closed tunnel (LCT) and the modified coronally advanced tunnel (MCAT) (ie, LCT/MCAT), designed to treat multiple mandibular adjacent gingival recessions (MAGR) and to present the clinical outcomes obtained in 11 consecutively treated patients.
Method and materials: Eleven systemically and periodontally healthy patients (7 females, mean ± SD 33.62 ± 14.6 years, min. 19 years max. 67 years) with a total of 40 adjacent mandibular RT1 (ie, Miller Class 1 and 2) gingival recessions with a minimum depth ≥ 3 mm, were consecutively treated with LCT/MCAT, in conjunction with an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and subepithelial palatal connective tissue graft (SCTG). Treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. Prior to surgery and at 12 months postoperatively, recession depth (RD) and recession width (RW) were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was complete root coverage (CRC, ie 100% root coverage), the secondary outcome was mean root coverage (MRC).
Results: Postoperative pain and discomfort were low and the healing was uneventful in all cases without any complications. At 12 months, statistically significant (P < .05) root coverage (RC) was obtained in all patients. CRC was obtained in five patients with a total of 21 recessions, while MRC measured 92.9% (ie, 3.75 mm). In seven patients (ie, 63.6%), RC amounted to > 93% while the minimum RC per patient measured 83.76%.
Conclusion: The results of the present case series suggest that the LCT/MCAT is a valuable technique for the treatment of mandibular RT1 MAGR.
Keywords: laterally closed tunnel, modified coronally advanced tunnel, multiple adjacent mandibular gingival recessions, recession coverage, subepithelial palatal connective tissue graft, surgical technique
Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry, 1/2021
Open Access Online OnlyPeriodontologyDOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.b2182985, PubMed ID (PMID): 34673845Pages 537-546, Language: English
Purpose: To histologically compare the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) produced using different protocols on periodontal wound healing/regeneration in periodontal defects in dogs.
Materials and Methods: Dehiscence-type gingival recession and two-wall intrabony defects were created bilaterally in the maxillary canines and mandibular premolars, respectively, in four beagle dogs. The recession defects were randomly treated with coronally advanced flap (CAF) alone, CAF and PRF produced via fixed-angle centrifugation (F-PRF; Leukocyte and PRF (L-PRF) protocol) or CAF and PRF produced via horizontal centrifugation (H-PRF). After 2 weeks, the two-wall intrabony defects were randomly treated as follows: open flap debridement (OFD), OFD + F-PRF, OFD + H-PRF and OFD + heated albumin with PRF using bio-heat technologies (Alb-PRF). Eight weeks after the 2nd reconstructive surgery, the animals were euthanised for histological evaluation.
Results: In the PRF-applied defects, new bone and new cementum formation occurred to varying degrees regardless of the protocols used to produce PRF. Particularly in the two-wall intrabony defects, new bone formation extended from the host bone toward the coronal region of the defects in the H-PRF applied sites compared with those in the OFD, F-PRF and Alb-PRF groups, and the H-PRF group showed the greatest amount of newly formed cementum.
Conclusion: PRF induced periodontal regeneration in gingival recession and two-wall intrabony defects in dogs. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal protocol for obtaining predictable periodontal regeneration in periodontal defects in humans.
Keywords: animal experiment, intrabony defect, gingival recession defect, periodontal wound healing/regeneration, platelet-rich fibrin
The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 3/2018
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5879, PubMed ID (PMID): 29420674Pages 645-652, Language: English
Purpose: Bone grafting materials are frequently utilized in oral surgery and periodontology to fill bone defects and augment lost or missing bone. The purpose of this study was to compare new bone formation in bone defects created in both normal and osteoporotic animals loaded with three types of bone grafts from different origins.
Materials and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were equally divided into control normal and ovariectomized animals. Bilateral 2.5-mm femur defects were created and filled with an equal weight of (1) natural bone mineral (NBM, BioOss) of bovine origin, (2) demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA, LifeNet), or (3) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, Vivoss). Following 3 and 6 weeks of healing, hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining was performed to determine new bone formation, material degradation, and osteoclast activity.
Results: All bone substitutes demonstrated osteoconductive potential at 3 and 6 weeks with higher osteoclast numbers observed in all ovariectomized animals. NBM displayed continual new bone formation with little to no sign of particle degradation, even in osteoporotic animals. DFDBA particles showed similar levels of new bone formation but rapid particle degradation rates with lower levels of mineralized tissue. BCP bone grafts demonstrated significantly higher new bone formation when compared with both NBM and DFDBA particles; however, the material was associated with higher osteoclast activity and particle degradation. Interestingly, in osteoporotic animals, BCP displayed synergistically and markedly more rapid rates of particle degradation.
Conclusion: Recent modifications to synthetically fabricated materials were shown to be equally or more osteopromotive than NBM and DFDBA. However, the current BCP utilized demonstrated much faster resorption properties in osteoporotic animals associated with a decrease in total bone volume when compared with the slowly/nonresorbing NBM. The results from this study point to the clinical relevance of minimizing fastresorbing bone grafting materials in osteoporotic phenotypes due to the higher osteoclastic activity and greater material resorption.
Keywords: Bio-Oss, bone formation, DFDBA, graft consolidation, guided bone regeneration, osteoporosis
International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 5/2017
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/prd.3228, PubMed ID (PMID): 28817142Pages 279-289, Language: English
Regenerative therapies are commonly needed prior to implant placement in the posterior maxilla following tooth extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical features of the atrophic posterior maxilla that might affect surgical approach selection and technique and risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Cone beam computed tomography files were screened to identify pristine atrophic maxillary ridges in need of bone augmentation (ridge height < 10 mm). Ridge height and width and lateral wall thickness (LWT) were measured at different levels, and palatonasal recess and lateral wall morphology were calculated. The influence of site was assessed using generalized estimation equations. The linear correlation between parameters was estimated with Pearson coefficient, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to establish patterns of multiple correlations. In the 433 edentulous sites and 6,062 measurements analyzed, the strongest correlations corresponded to LWT measurements at the different levels. Most of the parameters examined presented linearity (P < .001), allowing establishment of four main morphologic patterns according to anatomical features. The anatomical structures of the atrophic posterior maxilla follow linear patterns that might predict complications due to an anatomical feature and thus success in regenerative therapy.
The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 4/2017
Online OnlyDOI: 10.11607/jomi.5652, PubMed ID (PMID): 28708926Pages e221-e230, Language: English
Purpose: To investigate the bone-inducing properties of two types of collagen membranes in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 and rhBMP-9 on osteoblast behavior.
Materials and Methods: Porcine pericardium collagen membranes (PPCM) and porcine dermis-derived collagen membranes (PDCM) were coated with either rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-9. The adsorption and release abilities were first investigated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay up to 10 days. Moreover, murine bone stromal ST2 cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteoblast differentiation were assessed by MTS assay; real-time polymerase chain reaction for genes encoding runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); and osteocalcin, ALP assay, and alizarin red staining.
Results: Both rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-9 adsorbed to collagen membranes and were gradually released over time up to 10 days. PPCM showed significantly less cell attachment, whereas PDCM demonstrated comparable cell attachment with the control tissue culture plastic at 8 hours. While both rhBMPs were shown not to affect cell proliferation, collagen membranes combined with rhBMP-9 significantly increased ALP activity at 7 days and ALP mRNA levels at either 3 or 14 days compared with the control tissue culture plastic. Furthermore, rhBMP-9 increased osteocalcin mRNA levels and alizarin red staining at 14 days compared with the control tissue culture plastic.
Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that both porcine-derived collagen membranes combined with rhBMP-9 accelerated the osteopromotive potential of ST2 cells. Interestingly, rhBMP-9 demonstrated additional osteogenic differentiation compared with rhBMP-2 and may serve as a suitable growth factor for future clinical use.
Keywords: bone regeneration, BMP-2, BMP-9, collagen membrane, guided bone regeneration, porcine collagen membrane
The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 3/2017
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5145, PubMed ID (PMID): 27741331Pages 541-546, Language: English
Purpose: The placement of immediate implants has become a routine treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dimensional changes of hard tissues following tooth extraction, implant bed preparation, and the subsequent integration of titanium implants placed immediately or following an 8-week healing period.
Materials and Methods: All mandibular premolars were extracted and used as experimental sites in five beagle dogs. The left quadrant was used to compare the healing of alveolar bone following regular tooth extraction or surgical implant bed preparation. The right quadrant was used to compare immediate with delayed implant placement (3.3 mm, Bone Level SLActive, Roxolid, Straumann) after an 8-week healing period. All samples were assessed histologically for new bone area/total area (BATA), bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone height changes from the buccal and lingual midlines.
Results: Implant bed preparation led to significantly lower BATA values and bone height loss compared with regular extraction sockets (-2.46 mm vs -1.44 mm, respectively; P = .0007). Placement of immediate implants demonstrated buccal and lingual bone height loss of 1.51 mm and 0.91 mm, respectively, whereas only 0.12 mm and 0.12 mm of bone height loss was observed during delayed implant placement. A significantly higher BIC was observed for implants placed immediately compared with delayed placement (52% vs 35%, P < .05).
Conclusion: Implant bed preparation further increased dimensional changes when compared with routine extraction sockets. Although immediate implant placement produced better BIC than did delayed placement, a significantly higher bone height loss at both the buccal and lingual midlines was reported. Further investigation is underway to minimize dimensional changes following immediate implant placement.
Keywords: bone-to-implant contact, dental implants, extraction sockets, immediate implants, osseointegration
The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 1/2017
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5011, PubMed ID (PMID): 28095524Pages 196-203, Language: English
Purpose: Collagen barrier membranes were first introduced to regenerative periodontal and oral surgery to prevent fast ingrowing soft tissues (ie, epithelium and connective tissue) into the defect space. More recent attempts have aimed at combining collagen membranes with various biologics/growth factors to speed up the healing process and improve the quality of regenerated tissues. Recently, a new formulation of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system (Osteogain) has demonstrated improved physico-chemical properties for the adsorption of enamel matrix derivative to facilitate protein adsorption to biomaterials. The aim of this pioneering study was to investigate the use of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system in combination with collagen barrier membranes for its ability to promote osteoblast cell behavior in vitro.
Materials and Methods: Undifferentiated mouse ST2 stromal bone marrow cells were seeded onto porcine-derived collagen membranes alone (control) or porcine membranes + enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system. Control and enamel matrix derivative- coated membranes were compared for cell recruitment and cell adhesion at 8 hours; cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 5 days; and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 3 and 14 days for genes encoding Runx2, collagen1alpha2, alkaline phosphatase, and bone sialoprotein. Furthermore, alizarin red staining was used to investigate mineralization.
Results: A significant increase in cell adhesion was observed at 8 hours for barrier membranes coated with enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system, whereas no significant difference could be observed for cell proliferation or cell recruitment. Enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system significantly increased alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels 2.5-fold and collagen1alpha2 levels 1.7-fold at 3 days, as well as bone sialoprotein levels twofold at 14 days postseeding. Furthermore, collagen membranes coated with enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system demonstrated a sixfold increase in alizarin red staining at 14 days when compared with collagen membrane alone.
Conclusion: The combination of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system with a barrier membrane significantly increased cell attachment, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro. Future animal testing is required to fully characterize the additional benefits of combining enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system with a barrier membrane for guided bone or tissue regeneration.
Keywords: bone graft, emdogain, enamel matrix derivative, enamel matrix proteins, periodontal regeneration
Chinese Journal of Dental Research, 1/2017
DOI: 10.3290/j.cjdr.a37737, PubMed ID (PMID): 28232962Pages 9-17, Language: English
Objective: To study the clinical effect of short implant placement using osteotome sinus floor elevation technique and tent-pole grafting technique with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in severely resorbed maxillary area.
Methods: Eleven patients with insufficient bone height in the posterior maxillary area were included. According to the native bone height and crown height space (CHS), the patients were divided into two groups: immediate placement of short implants with simultaneous bone augmentation (group A, 5 patients) and delayed dental implant placement (4 to 6 months) after bone augmentation. The rhBMP-2 was added into a deproteinised bovine bone mineral (DBBM) bone grafting material to shorten the treatment procedure and enhance the final effect of bone augmentation in both groups. Tent-pole grafting technique was applied for vertical bone augmentation in group B (6 patients).
Results: The success rate of the implants placed was 100% in both groups. In group A, the short implants treatment was successful, with a vertical gain of 1.5 to 6.4 mm in bone height after 4 to 6 months. In group B, the tent-pole grafting procedure in combination with DBBM and rhBMP-2 increased vertical bone height between 3.1 and 8.1 mm, an optimistic and adequate increase for implant placement. This bone increase was maintained following implant placement and final crown placement in the maxillary region (3.5 to 7.3 mm).
Conclusion: The tent-pole grafting technique was a viable alternative choice to lateral sinus floor elevation in cases with excessive CHS. The application of rhBMP-2 with a shortened treatment time demonstrated positive outcomes in sinus floor augmentation procedures.
Keywords: sinus floor augmentation, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2, deproteinised bovine bone mineral, tent-pole grafting, crown height space