Pages 195-197, Language: German, English
Pages 201-212, Language: German, English
Background: The number of occlusal contacts per tooth, reproducibility, and repeated usage of the digital T-Scan III System (TS) with Sensor foil (SF) are compared in vivo with Hanel foil (HF).
Materials and methods: The static occlusion of 20 volunteers (average age: 25 years) with complete natural dentition without reconstructions or temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) was tested using HF, and compared with those tested using TS (with SF). To test intraexaminer reliability, the contacts by the TS and HF were evaluated twice, with an interval of 6 months. Reproducibility was tested by using five different HFs or SFs in two volunteers. For the TS stress test, one foil was used twice in three volunteers.
Results: Intraexaminer reliability was excellent. Overall, HF showed significantly more contacts (P = 0.001), especially in posterior teeth (P = 0.002); SF revealed significantly more contacts in anterior teeth (P = 0.003). Repeated assignment of occlusal contacts was reliable for HF but not for SF. The number of contacts was significantly less in the second usage of the same SF (P = 0.001).
Conclusion: SF should not be used for occlusal analysis or occlusal adjustment.
Keywords: occlusion, T-Scan, Hanel foil (HF), Sensor foil (SF), occlusal analysis, occlusal equilibration, occlusal indicator
Pages 213-225, Language: German, English
The dismissal of the causal role of occlusal interferences may be the result of the erroneous concept of occlusal interference and functional disorders, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The majority of researchers measure or assess variation in occlusion in a way that does not correspond to the concept of interference that is applied by many clinicians. Interferences are practically universally acquired risk factors, the result of a soft diet and minimal functional tooth wear. The lack of interference-free subpopulations needs to be taken into account in the design of studies of occlusion. Studies failing to show the association between occlusion and TMD suffer from methodological bias concerning not only occlusal variation but probably also the nature of TMD. The basic assumption has been that TMD is a self-limiting pain disorder. The Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD exclude several signs and symptoms associated with pathofunction. In clinical opinion, they often foreshadow painful conditions. Painless patients at risk of becoming pain patients are classified as 'healthy' according to the RDC. Randomized clinical trials testing the causal role of occlusion on the assumption that occlusal interferences are universal risk factors have so far clearly failed to exclude occlusion from the causal complex of functional disorders. Elimination of the risk from occlusion remains valid therapy when the cost-benefit assessment is favorable.
Keywords: occlusal interference, functional disorders, paradigms
Pages 227-245, Language: German, English
Aim: To investigate whether an international consensus exists among TMD experts regarding indications, performance, follow-up, and effectiveness of jaw exercises.
Materials and Methods: A questionnaire with 31 statements regarding jaw exercises was constructed. 14 international experts with some geographic dispersion were asked to participate in this Delphi study, and all accepted. The experts were asked to respond to the statements according to a 5-item verbal Likert scale that ranged from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." The experts could also leave free-text comments, which was encouraged. After the first round, the experts received a compilation of the other experts' earlier responses. Some statements were then rephrased and divided to clarify the essence of the statement. Subsequently, the experts were then asked to answer the questionnaire (32 statements) again for the second round. Consensus was set to 80% agreement or disagreement.
Results: There is consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are effective and can be recommended to patients with myalgia in the jaw muscles, restricted mouth opening capacity due to hyperactivity in the jaw closing muscles, and disc displacement without reduction. The patients should always be instructed in an individualized jaw exercise program and also receive both verbal advice and written information about the treatment modality.
Conclusion: This Delphi study showed that there is an international consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are an effective treatment and can be recommended to patients with TMD pain and disturbed jaw function.
(Original article published in J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2019; 33:389–398. doi: 10.11607/ofph.2359)
Keywords: Delphi technique, dentistry, jaw exercises, orofacial pain, physical treatment
Pages 247-252, Language: German
Das Thema Okklusion spielt in der Zahnmedizin eine tragende Rolle. Voraussetzung für eine gemeinsame Sprache unter den zahnärztlichen Akteuren ist aber eine einheitliche Nomenklatur. Am Beispiel des Ausdrucks zentrale Okklusion wird gezeigt, dass wichtige Fachtermini oftmals nicht einheitlich definiert sind und dass Inhalte bestehender Definitionen den sich in der Natur darbietenden Ist-Zuständen widersprechen. Die Vorgabe von reißbrettartig festgelegten Soll-Zuständen führt in der Zahnärzteschaft jedoch zu Verwirrung. Daher ist es wichtig, sich bei der klinischen Entscheidungsfindung stets von biologischen Grundsätzen und aktuellen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen leiten zu lassen.
Keywords: Definition, Kondylen, maximale Interkuspidation, Okklusion, Terminologie
Pages 253-272, Language: German, English
While the incidence of caries is decreasing due to good prevention, the incidence of tooth wear is increasing, especially in young adults. Over the years, a variety of diagnostic schemes have been proposed to identify tooth wear patients. Of these, only the Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES) provided a multi-stage examination consisting of a basic and an extended diagnostic module. An updated version, TWES 2.0, was recently released. The first module, Tooth Wear Screening, serves to identify patients with relevant findings. The second module, Tooth Wear Status, consists of a comprehensive charting procedure in patients with positive screening results, including tooth wear severity grading for each individual tooth, signs and symptoms indicative for pathological tooth wear, and the causes of the tooth wear. This article explains the practical procedure for digitally recording and interpreting the corresponding findings using special software (CMDbrux) and the resultant treatment based on an actual case example.
Keywords: tooth wear, Tooth Wear Screening, Tooth Wear Status, Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES) 2.0, bruxism, CMDfact, CMDbrux, minimally invasive restoration
Pages 273-279, Language: German, English
Further development of the foundations of the specialty of Craniomandibular Function and Disorders has in some cases made it necessary to redefine the positions of systematized entities of this specialty that had previously been relegated to other positions or causal contexts. Consequently, the first AWMF Guideline on Bruxism Diagnosis and Treatment was published on 2 May 2019 (Register No. 083-027) by the German Society of Craniomandibular Function and Disorders (DGFDT), together with the German Society of Dental, Oral and Craniomandibular Sciences (DGZMK) as well as around three dozen professional societies. The guideline, which was assigned an S3 ranking (reflecting the highest stage of development), recognizes bruxism as a potentially independent disease entity, placing it on a similar footing with craniomandibular dysfunction. The Bruxism Screening Index (BSI), an instrument for the diagnosis of bruxism, was developed by a DGFDT working group based on the current literature, parallel to the S3 Guideline. Restructuring of the specialty in this manner has led to a need for changes in the billing of bruxism diagnostic services. These aspects are discussed in this article.
Keywords: craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD), bruxism, Bruxism Screening Index (BSI), clinical functional analysis, German Dental Fee Schedule, GOZ, analogous billing
Pages 281-282, Language: English, German
Pages 283-288, Language: German, English