Objectives: This study aimed to develop an artificial intelligence (AI) model that can determine automatic tooth numbering, frenulum attachments, gingival overgrowth areas, and gingival inflammation signs on intraoral photographs and to evaluate the performance of this model.
Schlagwörter: artificial intelligence, deep learning, dental photography, periodontology
Method and materials: A total of 654 intraoral photographs were used in the study (n = 654). All photographs were reviewed by three periodontists, and all teeth, frenulum attachment, gingival overgrowth areas, and gingival inflammation signs on photographs were labeled using the segmentation method in a web-based labeling software. In addition, tooth numbering was carried out according to the FDI system. An AI model was developed with the help of YOLOv5x architecture with labels of 16,795 teeth, 2,493 frenulum attachments, 1,211 gingival overgrowth areas, and 2,956 gingival inflammation signs. The confusion matrix system and ROC (receiver operator characteristic) analysis were used to statistically evaluate the success of the developed model.
Results: The sensitivity, precision, F1 score, and AUC (area under the curve) for tooth numbering were 0.990, 0.784, 0.875, and 0.989; for frenulum attachment these were 0.894, 0.775, 0.830, and 0.827; for gingival overgrowth area these were 0.757, 0.675, 0.714, and 0.774; and for gingival inflammation sign 0.737, 0.823, 0.777, and 0.802, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of the present study show that AI systems can be successfully used to interpret intraoral photographs. These systems have the potential to accelerate the digital transformation in the clinical and academic functioning of dentistry with the automatic determination of anatomical structures and dental conditions from intraoral photographs.